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THE SIMS PLUTON, 
NASH AND WILSON COUNTIES, NORTH CAROLINA 



By 

J. Alexander Speer 

BULLETIN 97 



iiC. DOCUMENTS 
CLEARINGHOUSE 

JUL 1 1 1997 




NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



DIVISION OF LAND RESOURCES 



DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, HEALTH AND NATURAL RESOURCES 




) 



Geological Survey Section 

The Geological Survey Section examines, surveys, and maps the geology, mineral resources, 
and topography of the state to encourage the wise conservation and use of these resources by 
industry, commerce, agriculture, and government agencies for the general welfare of the citizens 
of North Carolina. 

The Section conducts basic and applied research projects in environmental geology, mineral 
resource exploration, and systematic geologic mapping. Services include identifying rock and 
mineral samples submitted by citizens and providing consulting services and specially prepared 
reports to agnecies that need geological information. 

The Geological Survey Section publishes Bulletins, Economic Papers, Information Circulars, 
Educational Series, Geologic Maps and Special Publications. For a list of publications or more 
information about the section please contact the Geological Survey Section at P.O. Box 27687, 
Raleigh, North Carolina 27611-7687, or call (919) 733-2423. 



Jeffrey C. Reid 
Chief Geologist 



THE SIMS PLUTON, 
NASH AND WILSON COUNTIES, NORTH CAROLINA 



By 



J. Alexander Speer 

Mineralogical Society of America 

1718 M Street, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20036 



NORTH CAROLINA GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 



BULLETIN 97 



1997 



CHARLES H. GARDNER, DIRECTOR AND STATE GEOLOGIST 



STATE OF NORTH CAROLINA DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENT, 

JAMES B. HUNT, JR., GOVERNOR HEALTH AND NATURAL RESOURCES 

JOHNATHAN B. HOWES, SECRETARY 



/ 



CONTENTS ' 



Page 

Abstract 1 

Introduction 2 

Previously Published Work 3 

Techniques 4 

Geologic Setting 5 

Lithology 5 

Sims Pluton 5 

Conner granitoid 7 

Sims granitoid 9 

Relationship between the 

Conner and Sims granitoids 9 

Porphyritic granitoid 10 

Aplite 10 

Muscovite + quartz greisen 10 

Veins 11 

Wall Rocks 12 

Country rocks 12 

Contact metamorphic aureole 12 

Granitoid Compositions 13 

Sims Pluton 13 

Comparison with other Alleghanian 



Page 

Granitoids 14 

Mineralogy 14 

Biotite 14 

White Mica 14 

Feldspars 15 

Oxide Minerals 15 

Chlorite 16 

Epidote 16 

Other Minerals 17 

Geophysical Expression 17 

Gravity Expression 17 

Aeromagnetic Expression 18 

Aeroradiometric Expression 19 

Soil and Groundwater Radon 20 

Economic Resources 25 

Stone 25 

Mica 25 

Base Metals 26 

Discussion 30 

Acknowledgements 32 

References Cited 33 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



Figure Page 

1. Location map Sims pluton, N.C 3 

2. Geologic sketch maps of the Sims 

pluton, N.C. and vicinity 6 

3. Modal QAP compositional diagram for 

the Sims pluton, NC 7 

4. Outcrops of the Conner and Sims 

granitoids 8 

5. Lower crust-normalized granitoid 

elemental concentrations 13 

6. Chondrite-normalized granitoid REE 

concentrations 14 

7. Biotite compositional quadrilateral 15 

8. Biotite compositional 

variation diagram 15 

9. Mica Fe+Mg+Mn — Al — Si (atomic pro 

portions) diagram 16 

10. Muscovite compositional variation 

diagram 16 



Figure Page 

11. Ternary compositional diagram for 

the Sims pluton feldspars 17 

12. Oxide Ti — Fe +2 ,Mn — Fe +3 ternary 

compositional diagram 17 

13. Chlorite compositional diagram 17 

14. Gravity map of the Sims pluton, N.C. 

and vicinity 18 

15. Aeromagnetic map of the Sims pluton, 

N.C. vicinity 19 

16. Aeroradioactivity map of the Sims 

pluton, N.C. vicinity 20 

17. Soil-gas sample locality map 21 

18. Soil-gas radon concentration map 22 

19. Groundwater sample locality map .... 23 

20. Groundwater radon 

concentration map 24 

21. Soil Cu concentration map 28 

22. Soil Mo concentration map 29 



TABLES 



Table Page 

1. Modal Analyses 36 

2. Rock Major Element Analyses 37 

3 . Rock Trace Element Analyses 38 

4. Biotite Analyses 39 

5. Muscovite Analyses 40 

6. Feldspar Analyses 42 

7. Ilmenite Analyses 46 

8. Hematite Analyses 47 

9. Magnetite Analyses 48 



Table Page 

10. Rutile Analyses 49 

11. Chlorite Analyses 50 

12. Epidote Analyses 51 

13. Carbonate Mineral Analyses 52 

14. Titanite Analyses 53 

15. Soil-gas Radon Concentrations 54 

16. Groundwater Radon Concentrations 55 

17. Aggregate Tests, Sims granitoid, 

Neverson Quarry 56 



n 



THE SIMS PLUTON, 
NASH AND WILSON COUNTIES, NORTH CAROLINA 

by 
J. Alexander Speer, Mineralogical Society of America 



ABSTRACT 

The Sims pluton of Alleghanian age (288 ±13 Ma) is an 
egg-shaped, composite body about 50 km 2 (20 mi 2 ) in area within 
the Eastern slate belt of North Carolina. It is a centered pluton 
comprising two major lithologies, the Conner (rim) and Sims 
(core) granitoids, and a number of minor granitoids that occur 
as dikes or other small intrusive bodies within the pluton. A 
1.5 x 0.5 km greisen-bearing zone is developed by replacement 
of the Conner granitoid within the southeastern margin of the 
pluton. Both major facies are coarse-grained, biotite 
monzogranites. The Conner granitoid contains alkali feldspar 
megacrysts up to 5 cm whereas the Sims is equigranular. The 
Conner granitoid contains monazite, relatively abundant sul- 
fide minerals, and only minor magnetite whereas the Sims con- 
tains allanite, a low abundance of sulfide minerals, and greater 
modal amounts of magnetite. There is a gradational contact 
between the two lithologies. Neither granitoid shows visible 
magmatic flow structures. Contact metamorphic rocks include 
garnet-bearing tactites and biotite + muscovite ± andalusite 
hornfelses and are sparsely developed. 

The two granitoid facies are identical in terms of modal and 
major and most trace element compositions. Significant com- 
positional differences are the higher S, U, Nb, Ta, and hydro- 
phile element Li, Be, Rb, Sr, Cs contents of the Conner, and the 
higher transition metals Zn, Pb, Cu contents of the Sims. Bi- 
otites of the Conner granitoid are more Fe-rich, F-rich, and alu- 
minous than those in the Sims, but there is a continuous com- 
positional gradation between them related by the Tschermak 
[ iv Al vi Al(Fe,Mg). 1 Si. 1 ] / [OHF^], [NlgFe^] exchanges, and 
solid solution with the dioctahedral micas. 



Textural and compositional features of the granitoids indi- 
cate the composite pluton formed from a single magma batch, 
portions of which crystallized under differing conditions to form 
the different lithologies. Varietal mineralogy of the two major 
facies are related by the reaction: Conner Fe-rich biotite + O2 
<=> Sims Mg-rich biotite + K feldspar + magnetite. The magma 
was emplaced vapor undersaturated. Vapor saturation oc- 
curred once solidification reached the Conner-Sims boundary. 
With vapor saturation, nucleation rates for the major minerals 
became nearly equal and the rock texture changed from 
inequigranular to equigranular. With vapor saturation, some 
components fractionated into the separate volatile phase. Mi- 
gration of the volatile phase from the central Sims granitoid 
caused relatively reduced conditions by dissociation of H2O 
and loss of H2. The outwardly migrating fluids reacted with 
the already crystallized surrounding Conner granitoid to form 
OH-bearing minerals and release of O2. Segregation and mi- 
gration of a fluid to the western margins of the pluton formed 
both the greisen zone by replacement of the Conner granitoid 
and the abundant aplite dikes. Subsequent, and lower tem- 
perature fluid migration would form the widespread mineral- 
ized fractures. During these fluid migrations, there was redis- 
tribution of the trace elements, especially the hydrophile ele- 
ments. The occurrence of the mineralizations in linear zones 
and fractures indicates structural control. The pluton was 
emplaced at depths corresponding to pressures less than the 
aluminum silicate triple point (<4 kbar, or <15 km depth). 

The Sims pluton causes anomalies in the regional gravity, 
magnetic, radiometric, and geochemical fields. The small nega- 
tive gravity anomaly and density difference of 0.13 g cm" 3 with 
the surrounding rocks makes it unlikely that the pluton is sig- 
nificantly larger at depth. Magnetic and radiometric anoma- 



lies reveal variations within the pluton. The positive magnetic 
anomaly of the pluton coincides with that portion of the Conner 
granitoid with the thinnest coastal plain cover and containing 
magnetite. The greatest radiometric maximum coincides with 
abundant aplite dikes in the northwestern margin of the plu- 
ton. The soils developed on the Sims pluton have a median 
soil-gas radon concentration of 2,289 pC/1 compared to a me- 
dian concentration of 1,192 pC/1 for the surrounding slate belt 
and 323 pC/1 for soils developed on the overlying coastal plain. 
The greatest soil gas radon concentrations (up to 6341 pC/1) 
are in the vicinity of abundant aplite dikes. Median ground- 
water radon concentration in the granitoids is 20,252 pC/1, 
whereas the groundwater of the slate belt rocks is 2,041 pC/1. 

The equigranular, automorphic Sims granitoid is presently 
being quarried for crushed stone. The greisen, along with the 
intermixed granite, is a potential source of mica, feldspar, and 
quartz. Elevated Mo concentrations in the soils is associated 
with the greisen that contains disseminated and vein Mo min- 
eralization. The adjacent Eastern slate belt rocks have elevated 
Cu concentrations. 



INTRODUCTION 

The Sims pluton is a granitic body within 
the Eastern slate belt largely covered by a thin 
layer of Atlantic Coastal Plain sediments. It has 
also been referred to as the Conner stock (Cook, 
unpub. data, 1972; Cook, 1972). The Sims plu- 
ton lies on the border of Wilson and Nash Coun- 
ties, North Carolina in the eastern part of the 
Raleigh 30 x 60-minute quadrangle. The center 
of the pluton nearly coincides with the location 
where the Bailey, Middlesex, Lucama, and 
Stancils Chapel U.S. Geologic Survey 1:24,000- 
scale topographic quadrangle maps meet (fig. 
1). 

The objective of this investigation was to 
characterize the distribution and nature of the 
granitoids and any contact aureole in order to 
understand and evaluate the geologic evolution, 
economic potential, and geophysical and 



geochemical expression of the Sims pluton. 
Much of the previous work on the pluton has 
been reconnaissance with most, if not all, 
samples examined obtained from the Neverson 
Quarry. The results of these previous studies 
produced a picture of a granitoid unlike the 
other igneous rocks of similar age in the south- 
eastern U.S. Such an unusual Alleghanian 
granitoid warranted further study. Like most 
granitoids in the southern Appalachians, the 
Sims pluton has been a source of both dimen- 
sion and crushed stone. However, unlike most, 
its potential for economic deposits of copper, 
zinc, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, mica, and 
feldspar have all been extensively explored. 
Additionally, the paleotopographic expression 
of the pluton appears to have been responsible 
for concentration of heavy minerals in economic 
amounts in the overlying Coastal Plain sedi- 
ments. The composition and physical proper- 
ties of the Sims pluton contrast with those of 
the enclosing rocks, and with other granitoids. 
These contrasts give rise to physical and chemi- 
cal anomalies immediately evident on regional 
maps of gravity, magnetics, radioactivity, and 
geochemistry. 

Most of the geologic mapping for this report 
was done between March and December, 1990. 
Laboratory studies to obtain mineral and rock 
compositions continued until May, 1991. The 
work was conducted as part of a cooperative 
effort (COGEOMAP) among the North Caro- 
lina Geological Survey, U. S. Geological Survey, 
and N. C State University. 

In addition to the work done for that project, 
this report incorporates the results of other un- 
published investigations. Radon concentrations 
measured in the soil gas and groundwater of 
the area are from Speer (unpub. data, 1992, 
1994). The Lindgren Exploration Company of 
Wayzata, Minnesota did detailed field mapping, 
trace element geochemistry, and drilling of the 




Figure 1. Location map of the Sims pluton, N.C. and overlying Atlantic coastal plain with regard 
to cultural features, county lines, and U.S.G.S. 7.5' topographic maps. 



granitoid and adjacent wall rocks between 1968 
and 1979 (Kiff, unpub. data, 1968; Kiff and 
Schell, unpub. data, 1969; Claus and Smith, 
unpub. data, 1970, 1971; Cook, unpub. data, 
1972; Bartlett, unpub. data, 1975; Bartlett and 
Johnson, unpub. data, 1979). The Sims pluton 
and adjacent wall rocks were thought to be 
among the more attractive possibilities for base 
metal deposits. Newmont Exploration also ex- 
amined the area (Hausen, unpub. data, 1979). 



PREVIOUSLY PUBLISHED WORK 

Published maps which delineate the pluton 
are preliminary geologic maps of Nash and 
Wilson counties (Wilson and Spence, 1979; Wil- 
son, 1979), the NC Geologic Map (N. C. Geo- 
logical Survey, 1985), and the regional mapping 
by Farrar (1985). Petrographic descriptions of 
the granitoids appear in Councill (1954), 
Wedemeyer (1981) and Farrar (1985). 



Unpublished data was also obtained from Cook (1972), Barwick et al. (1978), 

the N.C. Department of Transportation. It has Wedemeyer (1981), and Speer et al. (1980) have 

tested the aggregate produced from the reported on the mineralogy of the Sims pluton 

Neverson Quarry yearly since 1982 to assure an d associated mineralization. Sando (1979) 

compliance with standards for road aggregate. an d Wedemeyer (1981) determined some ma- 



jor and trace element geochemistry. Spanjers gravel. As the sea regressed, fine-grained dune 
(1983) measured fracture orientation data at the and nearshore deposits prograded to form a 
Neverson Quarry and traced lineaments in the sheet of sand containing the heavy-mineral de- 
region using Landsat photography. He found posits. The area has remained emergent since 
a strongly developed N.50°E., 30°N. joint set, that time, 
and a less developed N.30°E., 90°. Cu-Mo soil/ 

rock geochemical anomalies are associated with TECHNIQUES 
the pluton and it was explored for disseminated 

Mo-Cu mineralization (Cook, 1972). Councill Rock descriptions are based on hand-speci- 

(1954) gave a history of the Neverson Quarry. men petrography and transmitted and re- 

The Rb/Sr whole-rock age of the Sims plu- flected-light microscopy. Modal analyses were 

ton, based on rocks from the Neverson Quarry, done by point counting stained slabs using a 5 

is 288 ± 13 Ma, with an initial Sr ratio of 0.7044 x 5 mm transparent grid overlay. Igneous rock 

± 0.0005 (Wedemeyer, 1981). A Rb/Sr whole- names are those recommended by the IUGS 

rock / plagioclase / biotite isochron gives an Subcommission on the Systematics of Igneous 

age of 285 ± 2 Ma (Wedemeyer, 1981). Spanjers Rocks (LeMaitre, 1989). Color designations are 

(1983) reports a 262 ± 13 Ma K/Ar date. from the Rock-Color Chart (GSA, 1979). 

Wilson (1979) mapped hornfels at the south- Rock analyses were done by Chemex Labs 

eastern contact of the Sims. Farrar (1985) noted Inc., Sparks, Nevada. The samples were ground 

that the quartz muscovite phyllite adjacent to in a zirconia grinding apparatus. Concentra- 

the pluton was recrystallized to a coarse-grained tions of Si, Al, Ca, Fe (total), K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, 

quartz muscovite hornfels. He also reported a Ti were measured by ICP-AES following a ni- 

pelitic xenolith from the Neverson Quarry with tric-aqua-regia digestion of a fused meta-borate 

the assemblage biotite + andalusite + fibrolite fusion. FeO was measured by titration after acid 

+ quartz + muscovite. digestion. C and S were determined on a Leco 

IR detector /induction furnace. Crystalline and 

Carpenter and Carpenter (1991) described surface water were determined with a Leco 
the heavy-mineral deposits which occur in the RMC100. F was determined by specific ion elec- 
Coastal Plain sediments in the area. The high- trode after a carbonate-nitrate fusion. Nb and 
grade portion of the Bailey heavy-mineral de- Y were determined by x-ray fluorescence. CI, 
posit, termed the Bailey South deposit, overlies Cs, Hf, Sc, Ta, Th, U, and the REE were done by 
the Sims pluton (Mallard, 1992, in Hoffman and neutron activation analysis (NAA). Be, Ga, Ge, 
Carpenter, 1992). Hoffman and Carpenter Li, and Rb were done by Atomic Absorption 
(1992) described more fully the stratigraphy and Spectrophotometry (AAS) after a perchloric-ni- 
depositional environment of the sedimentary trie-hydrofluoric acid digestion. Ga had an or- 
rocks containing these deposits. They presented ganic extraction and the AAS was corrected for 
a structural contour map and several cross-sec- background. Cd, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Pb were 
tions of the nonconformity of the Sims pluton analyzed by AAS following an aqua regia di- 
and adjacent country rocks with the overlying gestion. Cd, Co, Ni, and Pb were corrected for 
Coastal Plain sedimentary rocks. The Sims plu- background. Cr, Sr, V, Ge, Ba were analyzed by 
ton was a paleographic high during the Pliocene AAS following a perchloric-nitric-hydro fluoric 
transgression. It remained emerged as an is- acid digestion. B was analyzed by prompt- 
land, developing an apron of coarse sand and gamma neutron activation. Sn was determined 



by AAS after ammonia iodide fusion extraction. (Farrar, 1985; Carpenter et al., 1994). The meta- 

W was determined colorimetrically after a po- morphic rocks are included in the Smithfield 

tassium pyrosulfate fusion. formation as defined by Farrar (1985). In the 

vicinity of the Sims pluton these comprise a 

Compositions of the minerals in polished lower metaargillite and an upper metasiltstone 

section were determined with a Cameca sequence (Carpenter et al., 1994). The pluton 

Camebax SX 50 electron microprobe at the Vir- intrudes metaargillite on its western and south- 

ginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, eastern contacts. It intrudes the metasiltstone 

on its southwest contact (fig. 2b). The western 
The procedures and equipment used for col- contact of the pluton is located to within 0.2 km 
lecting soil gas and groundwater radon samples by exposures along Turkey Creek. The north- 
are those described by Reimer (1991). Sample ern and eastern contacts are hidden by overly- 
depth for soil gas radon was 0.75 m. Ground- ing Coastal Plain sedimentary rocks. These in- 
water samples from the granitoid and Eastern trusive contacts were previously inferred from 
slate belt are from wells deeper than 25 m (84 aeromagnetic data (Farrar, 1985). The southeast- 
feet) that penetrated rock. Groundwater from ern contact was confirmed for this study in a 
shallower bored or hand-dug wells have lower traverse along the unnamed stream crossing 
radon contents that are comparable to the soil State Road 1145. 
gas contents. Coastal Plain groundwater 

samples are from wells ending within the LITHOLOGY 
Coastal Plain sediments. Water was run until it 

was being pumped from the ground. This was Sims pluton 
checked by measuring water temperatures 

which are generally <18°C in the ground. Ra- The Sims pluton is a composite body with 
don was measured on 20 cc of gas sample us- two major and several minor lithologies. Both 
ing Lucas cells and a Bondar-Clegg & Co., Ltd. major lithologies (Conner and Sims) are coarse- 
model RE-279 alpha-scintometer. Counting was grained biotite granitoids, but differ in the ap- 
begun five minutes after injection of gas into pearance of the alkali feldspars, color, degree 
the Lucas cell. Two-minute counts were taken of alteration, accessory mineralogy, and mineral 
and recorded until a reading that is lower than compositions, 
the previous one was obtained. At that point, a 

succession of five (5) 2-minute counts were Much of the previous work on the pluton 

taken and used for the radon concentration de- was confined to either the Neverson Quarry in 

termination. the northeast portion or the mineralized area 

in the southeast portion of the pluton. Starting 

GEOLOGIC SETTING with Councill (1954), workers refered to the rock 

in the Neverson Quarry near the town of Sims 

The Sims is an egg-shaped pluton with an as the granite at Sims or the Sims granite. The 

area of approximately 50 km 2 (20 square miles) igneous body was eventually termed the Sims 

(fig. 2). The pluton occurs in the Spring Hope as well by Wedemeyer (1981). The Lindgren 

tectonostratigraphic terrane of Horton et al. Exploration Company worked in the southeast 

(1989). It is emplaced in greenschist-grade portion of the body near the community of 

metasedimentary rocks of the Eastern slate belt Conner. Kiff and Schell (unpub. data, 1969) first 

along the axial trace of the Smithfield synform termed the rock the Conner granite and the ig- 




Figure 2a. Geologic sketch map of the Sims pluton, NC showing the distribution and location of 
outcrops and numbered samples collected for this study for the Conner granitoid (open circles), 
Sims granitoid (filled squares), and greisen zone. 




Figure 2b. Contacts of the Eastern slate belt lithologies in the vicinity of the Sims pluton from 
Carpenter et al., unpublished, 1995 (Middlesex), Carpenter et al., 1995 (Stancils Chapel), and 
Hoffman et al., unpublished (Lucama). Drillholes are the bedrock diamond core drilling 
program of the Lindgren Exploration Company (Claus and Smith, unpub. data, 1971). 



neous body the Conner stock. The rocks in the 
two areas are petrographically distinct facies of 
the pluton. Because of this fortuitous happen- 
stance, the two names are retained for the two 
distinct lithologic facies in the pluton: the 
Conner and Sims granitoids. 

The proper or suitable name for the pluton 
is problematical. Taking their cue from 
Council's (1954) label of the body as the granite 
of the Sims area, all but one of the published 
papers on the pluton refer to it as the Sims. The 
Lindgren unpublished reports refer to it as the 
Conner stock as early as 1969, but this name 
only appears in print with the abstract by Cook 
(1972). Because the pluton is most commonly 
refered to in print as the Sims, that usage is re- 
tained here. Sims is the name as one of the con- 
stituent facies as well. This is a unavoidable 
consequence of retaining continuity with past 
usages. It is not the only case. For example, the 
Liberty Hill pluton of South Carolina contains 
two major facies: the Kershaw and Liberty Hill 
granitoids (Wagener, 1977). 

Conner granitoid 

The western and southern sides of the plu- 
ton (fig. 2a) comprise coarse-grained, biotite 
granitoid. Modal analysis shows the rocks are 
granites with a color index (CI) < 5 (table 1, fig. 
3). The rocks lie in that area of the granite field 
designated monzogranite in the IUGS system 
(LeMaitre, 1989). The texture is automorphic 
granular with no discernible mineral alignment. 
The rock contains abundant alkali feldspars 
which are subhedral to euhedral, tabular crys- 
tals up to 5 cm (2 inches) across. Because the 
other minerals in the rock are less than 1 cm 
across, the alkali feldspar megacrysts give the 
rock a hiatal or inequigranular texture (fig. 4a). 
The alkali feldspar is conspicuous mineral in 
outcrop because of its prominent relief on 
weathered surfaces. The alkali feldspar is very 



quartz 



• Conner Granite 
x Sims Granite 

• Wedemeyer (1981) 




alkali feldspar 



plagioclase 



Figure 3. Triangular modal diagram of quartz 
- alkali feldspar - and plagioclase for the 
Sims pluton, NC granitoids. 

pale orange in rocks on the northwest corner of 
the pluton and grades through grayish orange 
pink to moderate orange pink to the south and 
east. The color of the alkali feldspar controls 
the color of the fresh rock. The alkali feldspar 
is perthitic microcline and is locally poikilitic 
with inclusions of plagioclase and biotite and a 
noticeable textural zoning. Wiborgite (rapakivi) 
texture is widespread and readily noticeable by 
the color difference between the two feldspars. 
Plagioclase grains are subhedral to anhedral 
plates up to 1 cm across and are white. They 
have normal oscillatory zoning of An 2 i to Ang. 
Biotite is the only varietal mineral and occurs 
as black flakes up to 5 mm across. It is locally 
altered to muscovite, chlorite, epidote, and 
rutile. 

Magmatic accessory minerals include apa- 
tite, monazite, and zircon. Apatite in rocks with 
abundant monazite have cores clouded by 
abundant 2-phase fluid inclusions. Opaque 
minerals are magnetite, exsolved hemo-il- 
menite, columbite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and 
pyrrhotite. Pyrrhotite occurs only as inclusions 



■Jt'1* •«*-" 



23456789 10 CM 



Figure 4a. Conner coarse-grained, inequigranular biotite granitoid. The large mineral grains 
are alkali feldspar megacrysts up 5 cm in a groundmass less than 1 cm. 



I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 CM 



« H £ 



Figure 4b. The Sims coarse-grained, equigranular biotite granitoid. 



in pyrite and exsolution intergrowths in chal- other comparably sized minerals. These feld- 
copyrite. Chalcopyrite occurs as matrix grains spars are perthitic microcline and occur as 
and inclusions in the silicate, oxide, and other subhedral to anhedral blocky and equant grains 
sulfides. Pyrite and chalcopyrite also occur as up to 1.5 cm across. Locally, tabular alkali feld- 
fillings in fractures cutting across several dif- spar grains up to 4 cm across similar to those in 
ferent mineral grains. Carbonate, chlorite, epi- the inequigranular granitoids are present. How- 
dote, fluorite, Nb-rutile, and muscovite are sec- ever they are rare. Both types of alkali feldspar 
ondary accessory minerals. are pale red to grayish red. Plagioclase grains 

are anhedral and less than 5 mm across and are 

Sims granitoid white to pale green depending on the degree of 

alteration. They have oscillatory normal zon- 

Rocks in the center and northeastern corner ing of An 2 3 to An . Biotite is the varietal min- 

of the pluton (fig. 2a) are also coarse-grained eral and occurs as black flakes less than 2 mm 

biotite granitoids, but the alkali feldspars are across. The biotite is extensively replaced by 

smaller than in the megacrystic granitoid. They muscovite, chlorite, epidote, fluorite, and rutile. 
are generally comparable in grain size with the 

other minerals. This gives the Sims granitoid a Magmatic accessory minerals include 

more equigranular appearance than the Conner allanite, apatite, columbite, and zircon. Opaque 

granitoid (fig. 4b). It is assumed the Sims grani- minerals are magnetite, coarsely exsolved 

toid forms a continuous mass underlying the hemo-ilmenite, chalcopyrite, pyrite, and pyr- 

Coastal Plain sediments in that part of the plu- rhotite. The hemo-ilmenite also contains 

ton where they are the only exposed rock type, intergrowths of rutile. Pyrrhotite occurs only 

as inclusions in magnetite and unmixed from 

Modal analysis show that the rocks are gran- chalcopyrite. Chalcopyrite occurs as inclusions 

ites (table 1, fig. 3) with a color index (CI) < 5. in the silicates and oxides. The sulfide miner- 

The rocks lie in that area of the granite field als are less abundant than in the megacrystic 

designated monzogranite in the IUGS system granitoids. Secondary accessory minerals are 

(LeMaitre, 1989). Previous modal analyses by calcite, chlorite, fluorite, epidote, hematite, 

Wedemeyer (1981) showed these rocks as alkali muscovite, Nb-bearing rutile, and titanite. 
feldspar granitoids with a wide modal scatter 

(fig. 3). The scatter resulted from point count- Fracture fillings and alteration zones in the 

ing one thin section per sample, which was too Neverson Quarry were investigated by Barwick 

small an area for the rock grain size. The name et al. (1978), who reported carbonates, chlorite, 

difference results from Wedemeyer 's counting epidote, fluorite, hematite, muscovite, quartz, 

the albite zones of the plagioclase as alkali feld- and pyrite as well as bornite, chalcocite, chal- 

spar and the plagioclase saussuritization as copyrite, galena, molybdenite, and pyrite. 
muscovite. 

Relationship between 

The texture is hypidiomorphic granular with the Conner and Sims granitoids 
no discernible mineral alignment. Contrasting 

colors of the major minerals give the rock a Field evidence for the possible relationship 

mottled coloring in fresh samples, but weath- between the Conner and Sims granitoids was 

ered samples tend to be reddish. Alkali feld- found only in the valley containing the west 

spar is generally no more conspicuous than the branch of Marsh Swamp, located in the north- 



west corner of the Lucama quadrangle. There 
are outcrops of Conner granitoid on its south- 
ern length. The Conner granitoid in this area is 
inequigranular, containing about 25-33 modal 
% subhedral alkali feldspar megacrysts. Along 
the upper reaches of the stream, there are out- 
crops of Sims granitoid. Here the Sims grani- 
toid is an coarse-grained, equigranular rock. An 
outcrop 0.1 km south of SR 1132 is a granitoid 
containing only about 10 modal % alkali feld- 
spar megacrysts. This outcrop is the only one 
found at the contact between the two major fa- 
des of the pluton and contains features transi- 
tional between the two. The contact between 
the Conner and Sims granitoids is interpreted 
as a gradational contact. 

Porphyritic granitoid 

Near the southeast border of the pluton (SI- 
21) is a granitoid containing grains of perthitic 
microcline, plagioclase, quartz, and biotite up 
to 2 cm set in a fine-grained, nearly aphanitic 
matrix. The abrupt hiatal texture warrants the 
term porphyritic. Biotite is noticeably more 
abundant, and the CI is about 10. The alkali 
feldspars are blocky subhedral grains 0.5-2.0 cm 
across. The plagioclase occurs as tabular 
subhedral grains up to 1 cm across. Quartz oc- 
curs as equant grains up to 5 mm across in rough 
hexagonal dipyramids. These are most likely 
a-quartz pseudomorphs after (3-quartz. Biotite 
occurs as rounded flakes 4 mm across. The 
matrix is comprised of the same minerals but 
of grains less than 0.5 mm across. 

Claus and Smith (unpub. data, 1971) de- 
scribed several intervals of what they termed 
quartz porphyry within the Sims granitoid of 
the DDH 3 drillcore. Two intervals coincide for 
a distance of 30 feet. If these rocks are the same 
as those at location SI-21, then the porphyritic 
granitoid is a dike rock. 



Aplite 

Granitoid aplite occur locally in dikes up to 
10 cm wide in both major granitoid lithologies 
of the pluton. The few surface exposures con- 
taining aplite would indicate that aplite dikes 
are relatively rare in the pluton. However, 
drillholes in the northwest area of the pluton 
encountered abundant aplite dikes (Claus and 
Smith, unpub. data, 1971). Thirty-one aplite 
dikes, occupying 1-6 inch intervals of core, were 
encountered in the 203-foot-deep DDH 1 
drillhole, 15 aplite dikes were encountered in 
the 200-foot-deep DDH 3 drillhole, and 8 aplites 
were encountered in the 120-foot granitoid in- 
terval of DDH 1. By comparison, only 2 aplite 
dikes were encountered in the 2,577 feet core of 
the other 12 drillholes elsewhere in the pluton. 

The aplite is white with a xenomorphic 
granular texture and grain size of < 1 mm. CI is 
< 2. Accessory minerals include biotite, mus- 
covite, magnetite, hemo-ilmenite, and chalcopy- 
rite locally intergrown with pyrrhotite and 
covellite. 

Muscovite + quartz greisen 

At the southeastern contact of the pluton, 
coarse-grained rocks of muscovite + quartz are 
found as outcrops and float boulders up to 4 m. 
Greisen occurs in a north-northwest-trending 
band up to 0.3 km wide extending about 1.5 km 
between State Roads 1131 and 1126 (fig. 2a). 
These rocks are the marginal greisen zone of 
Cook (unpub. data, 1972; 1972) and the quartz- 
muscovite hornfels of Farrar (1985). Because of 
their spatial association with the granitoid con- 
tact, they could form by alteration of either 
granitoid or country rocks. However, mapping 
and the Lindgren Exploration drillcores (Claus 
and Smith, unpub. data, 1971) shows that the 
greisen zone lies within the pluton. Three drill 
cores in an east-west traverse across the north- 



10 



ern end of the greisen zone (DDH 4, 5, and 6) and distribution much like the alkali feldspars 
encountered little greisen (Claus and Smith, in the Conner granitoid. On the basis of this 
unpub. data, 1971). An interval between 40- and texture, the greisen is interpreted, in part, to 
50-foot depth of DDH 6 was the largest. This have formed by replacement of the enclosing 
greisen interval yielded an assay of 28 ppm Sn, Conner granitoid. Feldspar is rare as are limo- 
the highest values found during exploration. A nite pseudomorphs after earlier minerals. Chlo- 
cluster of drillholes in the middle of the greisen rite was locally reported by Claus and Smith 
zone (DDH 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, and 14) also encoun- (unpub. data, 1971). Opaque minerals of the 
tered little or no greisen in most holes. DDH 7 greisen are pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybden- 
contained a 1 -foot interval of greisen at 250 feet ite (up to 10 mm masses) (Claus and Smith, 
whose Cu assay was 650 ppm, the highest value unpub. data, 1971). 
obtained during exploration. Significant gre- 
isen was located between 63-68 feet in DDH 8; Veins 
between the intervals 132-152, 160-166, and 206- 

209 feet in DDH 10; and between 165-175 in Through-out the area of the Sims pluton are 
DDH 13. Drillholes DDH 9 and 10 were located scattered residual fragments of weathered vein 
in an area of abundant greisen float. Two material in the soil. This is invariably Fe-stained 
drillholes at the southeast contact of the plu- milky quartz, a ubiquitous feature of 
ton, where the greisen zone was mapped as Alleghanian plutons. What sets the veins of the 
adjacent to the wall rocks (DDH 11 and 12), en- Sims pluton apart was the opportunity pro- 
countered less than 2 feet of greisen. vided by the Lindgren Exploration Company 

drilling program to examine fresh samples 

Small occurrences of greisen are found in the (Claus and Smith, unpub. data, 1971). 
northeast are of the pluton (Claus and Smith, 

unpub. data, 1971). A short (< 1 foot) interval Veins occupied up to 25 cm lengths of the 

of molybdenite-bearing greisen was encoun- drillcore. Massive, milky quartz is the domi- 

tered in the DDH 2 drillhole five feet in from nant mineral. On the surface at DDH 12, quartz 

the wall rock-pluton contact. The 10-foot sec- crystals up to 10 cm were found in the soil, in- 

tion of core containing the greisen gave 127 ppm dicating some quartz grew in open spaces. Cal- 

Mo, the highest values obtained during the ex- cite and calcite-bearing veins were found in the 

ploration. greisen zone. In a few drillholes, pyrite, with 

or without molybdenite, was noted as the min- 

Muscovite occurs as unoriented grains up eral filling of hairline fractures. A quartz vein 
to 5 mm across. Rosettes of euhedral musco- containing black tourmaline 1 cm long was en- 
vite crystals occur in open vugs. The vugs are countered in DDH 10. Vein sulfide minerals 
either an original feature or formed by the include pyrite, chalcopyrite, molybdenite (up 
weathering of some mineral. The occurrence to 1.5 mm), sphalerite (with exsolved chalcopy- 
of limonite in some vugs indicates the later, rite), galena, arsenopyrite, pyrrhotite (contained 
probably pyrite. Locally the muscovite is color within the pyrite), and chalcocite (replacing 
zoned. Quartz occurs intermixed with the mus- chalcopyrite). The occurrence of these miner- 
covite or as separate veins. The quartz occur- als is sporadic, but they can comprise up to 2% 
ring with the muscovite is present as either dis- by volume of the vein. The dominant sulfide 
seminated granular masses or as 1-4 cm mineral is pyrite. The only other mineral men- 
rounded to blocky grains with an appearance tioned as occurring in the veins is chlorite. 

11 



Analysis of a sphalerite + galena-bearing sparse distribution of observations, appear un- 

vein within the Eastern slate belt at 115 feet in disturbed by emplacement of the Sims pluton 

DDH 15 showed 520 ppm Pb, 500 ppm Zn, 90 (fig. 2b). 
ppm Cu; 7 ppm Sn, 3 ppm W, 2 ppm Mo, and 

no Au. The few other analyzed veins contained Contact metamorphic aureole 
up to 60 ppm Cu, less than 1 ppm Mo (but one 

with 1,080 ppm Mo), and up to 16 ppm W, 10 Several mapping traverses across the grani- 

ppm Zn, and 10 ppm Sn. Weathered quartz toid - wall rock contact located only one sur- 

veins, or siliceous gossan, had uniformly higher face exposure of contact metamorphic effects in 

base metal contents (up to 150 ppm Cu, 1,920 the aureole (SI-25). This was within 0.2 km or 

ppm Mo). less of the contact. This hornfels is distinguished 

in the field from the phyllites of the country 

Wall rocks rocks by its dark greenish gray color and 1 mm 

round pyrite porphyroblasts. The mineral as- 
Country rocks semblage is biotite + muscovite + quartz. 

Country rocks in the immediate vicinity of The Lindgren Exploration Company en- 
the Sims pluton are phyllites and metasilts tones, countered several contact metamorphic effects 
These rock types were included in the in holes drilled to cross the pluton - wall rock 
Smithfield formation described and mapped by contact (Claus and Smith, unpub. data, 1971). 
Farrar (1985). They are considered to be of Late Within two meters of the granitoid contact in 
Proterozoic or Cambrian age with a greenschist DDH 2, the Eastern slate belt phyllites gave way 
facies metamorphic mineral assemblage of to a spotted biotite-muscovite hornfels with 10% 
Taconic age. Detailed mapping of the pyrite and a 1 inch zone of 3 mm garnets with 
Middlesex (Carpenter et al, 1995), Stancils epidote and molybdenite. DDH 15 was located 
Chapel (Carpenter et al., 1995), and Lucama within 50 feet of the pluton contact, but did not 
(Hoffman et al., unpub. data, 1995) quadrangles intersect the granitoid when drilling stopped at 
shows that the pluton is emplaced in a sequence 270 feet. The hole started in greenish gray, deli- 
of laminated argillites and massive siltstone (fig. cately banded argillite which became more mi- 
2b). Phyllites are distinguished on the basis of caceous, massive, and darker with depth. Gar- 
well defined fissility, sheen, and abundant net-bearing quartz-rich rocks appeared, start- 
phyllosilicates. They range in color from gray- ing at 100-foot depth. These changes were in- 
ish green through grayish red purple and tend terpreted as an effect of increasing contact meta- 
toward brown when weathered. Metasiltstones morphism. Two calc-silicate garnet tactite zones 
are more granular, with visible mineral grains were encountered between 243-247 feet, 
and weak foliation. They are grayish green. 

Both rock types contain the same mineral as- Farrar (1985) described a pelitic xenolith 

semblage: muscovite + chlorite + quartz + from the Neverson Quarry with the assemblage 

opaques ± epidote. Both rock types are cross- biotite + andalusite + fibrolite + quartz + mus- 

cut by quartz veins. Measurable foliations of covite. Re-examination of the sample (F7-163- 

the country rocks are phyllosilicate mineral 2) shows it is a fine-grained, xenomorphic 

alignments which appear to subparallel rock granular rock with banding defined by dark 

cleavage and compositional layering. The gen- oblate poikiloblasts up to 3 mm across. In ad- 

eral trend is N.10°E. - N.20°E. and, within the dition to the reported mineral assemblage, the 

12 



rock also contained plagioclase and two textural 
occurrences of muscovite. Muscovite occurs as 
flakes equal in size to the biotites and as fine- 
grained aggregates which form the 
poikiloblasts. The poikilitic porphyroblasts may 
have originally been cordierite. 

Wilson (1979) mapped as hornfels the rocks 
along Contentnea Creek south of the Sims plu- 
ton in a rectangular area 1.5 km wide and ex- 
tending to the county line up to 4 km away from 
the contact. These rocks are metasiltstones and, 
while having a massive texture, do not have a 
mineralogy or texture indicative of contact 
metamorphism. These rocks are a lithologic unit 
within the country rocks which can mapped on 
a regional basis (fig. 2b). 



subalkaline on the basis of Na20 + K2O vs. 
silica, with K2O > Na20. The granitoids are 
leucocratic, and Ti02 + FezOs + MgO + MnO is 
less than 2.80 wt.%. They are iron-rich, with an 
average cation Fe/(Fe+Mg) ratio of 0.659 (table 
2). There is wide scatter of ferrous and ferric 
iron contents, and the cation Fe +3 /(Fe +2 + Fe +3 ) 
ratio is 0.322-0.853. The granitoids extend into 
the calc-alkaline field on an AFM plot (Irvine 
and Baragar, 1971); however, the rocks are too 
felsic, and their compositional range too lim- 
ited, to make this distinction meaningful. They 
span the metaluminous-peraluminous bound- 
ary with a range of A/CNK (molecular AI2O3/ 
[CaO + Na 2 + K 2 0]) values from 0.994 to 1.025. 
However, all rocks have normative corundum 
(table 2). 



GRANITOID COMPOSITIONS 

Sims Pluton 

Major and trace element composition of the 
Conner and Sims granitoids are reported in 
tables 2 and 3. Various calculated petrochemi- 
cal parameters and CIPW norms are included 
in table 2. 

The granitoids of the Sims pluton span a 
small compositional range. The silica contents 
of the rocks only range from 73.56 to 74.97 wt.%, 
and the other elements have comparable com- 
positional ranges. There are small, but system- 
atic major element differences between the 
Conner and Sims granitoids. The Conner grani- 
toid contains more Si and less Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, 
Ca, Na, and K than the Sims granitoid (table 2). 
Most trace element compositions of the two fa- 
des overlap, but there are important differences. 
The Conner granitoid contains more Li, Be, Rb, 
Nb, Cs, Ta, U and less Sr than the Sims grani- 
toid (table 3). 

The Conner and Sims granitoids are 



A lower-crust normalized plot of selected 
elements is given in figure 5. The lower crust 
was chosen for normalization because it is a 
likely source for the Alleghanian granitoid 



granitoid abundance 
lower crust abundance 



100 -, 



10 -. 







'^Wh' 









m 



element 
Figure 5. Lower-crust normalized diagram for 
the Sims pluton, NC. Data is from Table 3. 
Normalizing values from Taylor and 
McLennan (1985). 



13 



granitoid abundance 
chondrite abundance 

1000^ 



100 



10 



^^: 





SI-3 


■ 


SI-4 


A 


SI-U 


4- 


SI-U 


O 


SI-26 


• 


Sl-27 




La Ce PrNdSmEuGdTb DyHoErTmYb Lu 
element 

Figure 6. REE chondrite-normalized diagram 
for the Sims pluton, NC. Data is from Table 
3. Normalizing REE values from Nakamura 
(1983). 

magma whereas MORB, primitive mantle, or 
chondrites have no clear genetic relationship to 
the granitoids. The Sims granitoids are enriched 
over the lower crust in all of the selected ele- 
ments except for Sr, Ti, Sc, and V. There are 
negative Pb, Ba, Sr, Ti, Sc, and V anomalies. The 
systematic Cs, U, Ta, and Nb differences be- 
tween the two granitoid facies are evident by 
the separation of the patterns at those elements. 

The Sims pluton chondrite-normalized REE 
patterns (fig. 6) have gentle slopes, with light 
rare-earth element enrichment, a small or ab- 
sent Eu anomaly, and a low abundance of the 
heavier rare-earth elements. The pattern for the 
HREE is scattered. This might be accounted for 
by a lack of precision in determining the less 
abundant HREE. 

Comparison with other Alleghanian 
Granitoids 

The rocks of the Sims pluton have, for the 



most part, compositions that fall within the 
range of compositions of the Alleghanian 
granitoids of the southern Applachians. The 
mean composition, and standard deviation, are 
included in tables 2 and 3. These values are re- 
ported by Speer and Hoff (in press) and are com- 
piled from up to 609 rock analyses for some el- 
ements. The Sims pluton granitoids are more 
siliceous than the average. Speer and Hoff (in 
press) found that a number of elemental con- 
centrations varied linearly with silica content. 
Many of the differences of the Sims granitoids 
from the averages of tables 2 and 3 result from 
this effect. However, a few differences exceed 
this silica compositional effect. The Conner 
granitoids have greater amounts of S, Nb, Cs, 
and U than most Alleghanian granitoids, even 
those granitoids as siliceous as the Sims. 

MINERALOGY 

Mineral compositions were obtained from 
9 Conner granitoid, 6 Sims granitoid, 2 greisen, 
and 1 porphyritic granitoid samples. Also in- 
cluded in the work were 4 polished sections of 
samples originally used by Farrar (1985) to de- 
scribe the Sims pluton. 

Biotite 

Biotites of the Sims granitoid are more mag- 
nesian, F-rich, and less aluminous than those 
in the Conner, but there is a continuous compo- 
sitional gradation between them (table 4, fig. 7 
and 8). These compositional variations can be 
related by four solid solutions: Tschermak 
[ivAlviAl(Fe,Mg). 1 Si. 1 ] / F-OH [OHF.J, and Fe- 
Mg [MgFe.j] exchanges, and a degree of solid 
solution with the dioctahedral micas (fig. 9). 

White Mica 

The white micas in the Sims pluton are 
dominantly muscovite-phengite solid solutions 



14 



> 



(3 
0) 



3.0 



2.8 



2.6- 



2.4- 



2.2- 



2.0- 



D Cornier granite 
• Sims Granite 






□ 



a 



0.0 



— r - 
0.2 



0.4 0.6 



0.8 



1.0 



cation Fe/(Fe+Mg) 



Figure 7. Sims pluton, NC biotite composi- 
tions projected onto the phlogopite-annite- 
eastonite-siderophyllite field and differen- 
tiated by granitoid. Biotite compositional 
data from table 4. 

with minor trioctahedral substitution (table 5, 
fig. 9). There are small compositional differ- 
ences among the muscovites depending on oc- 
currence with lithology and in an individual 
sample. Muscovites in plagioclase (sausserite) 
are sodic, but have less Fe+Mg, Ti, and F than 
the matrix muscovites (fig. 10). Greisen 
muscovites are more sodic than the granitoid 
matrix muscovites. 

X-ray diffraction analysis of the greisen 
muscovites show them to be the 2M2 poly- 
morph (Claus and Smith, unpub. data, 1971). 
Spectrographic analysis of the greisen showed 
that Li was present in quantities of up 100 ppm 
(Kiff and Schell, unpub. data, 1969). This indi- 
cates that the Li-bearing mica, zinnwaldite does 
not occur in any significant degree, either as a 
separate phase or as a component of the mica. 

Feldspars 

Microprobe analyses show that the plagio- 
clases have a compositional range of An25 to 



Ano and that the perthites are intergrowths of 
albite and K feldspar of average composition 
Or 96 (table 6, fig. 11). 

Oxide Minerals 

The rhombohedral oxides are ilmenite and 
hematite. They occur as intergrowths, indicat- 
ing they have exsolved from a higher-tempera- 
ture hemo-ilmenite solid solution. Ilmenite is 
close to end-member composition on the il- 
menite-hematite join, whereas hematite has a 
significant ilmenite solid solution (tables 7 and 
8, fig. 12). However, the ilmenite has up to 32 
mol % substitution of the pyrophanite compo- 
nent (MnTiOs), though most have about 20% 
(table 7). The spinel phase is magnetite with 
nearly the ideal composition (table 9). A brown 



re 

< 

< 



-a 

3 
o 



0.9 
0.8- 
0.7- 
3 0.6- 

ttT 0.5 - 

0.4- 
0.3- 
0.2 



V 



9 



□ 



a 

a 
□ □ 
□ 



-0.7 
-0.6 
-0.5 
-0.4 
-0.3 



j_ 



_i_ 



□ Conner granitoid 
• Sims granitoid 



• • 



a 
□ 



a 



a 



a □ 



~r 



"T~ 



■0.8 



• 0.2 



0.40 



0.45 



0.50 0.55 



0.60 



0.65 



0.70 



cation Fe/(Fe +Mg) 



Figure 8. Sims pluton, NC biotite variation dia- 
grams for V1 A1, Fe, Mg, and F with Fe/(Fe + 
Mg). Compositional data from table 4. afu 
= atomic formula units. 



15 



^Al+^Al 



a mica end-members 

' Conner biotites 

° Conner and Sims muscovites 

+ Sims biotites 




eastonite 
siderophyllite 

D 



60 50 



40 



30 



20 



10 



Fe+Mg+Mn 



Si 



Figure 9. Sims pluton, NC mica cc mpositions 
plotted on a Fe+Mg+Mn — Al--Si (atomic 
proportions) diagram. Mineral composi- 
tional data from tables 4 and 5. 



rutile has up to 9 wt % FeO and a significant, 
though undetermined amount of Nb (table 10). 
A Fe-Nb oxide mineral was found in both 
granitoids. The mineral is tentatively identified 
as columbite. 

Chlorite 

The chlorites of the Conner granitoid (Fe/ 
(Fe + Mg) = 0.518-0.671) are more Fe-rich than 
the Sims granitoid chlorites (Fe/(Fe + Mg) = 
0.435-0.490) (table 11). This difference makes 
the Conner chlorites ripidolites and 
brunsvigites whereas the Sims chlorites are 
dominantly pycnochlorites (fig. 13). 

Epidote 

Matrix epidotes in both granitoids of the 
Sims pluton have narrow compositional ranges. 
The pistacite component is PS27.4-PS31.0 with Mn 
contents corresponding to a piemontite compo- 
nent between Pdo.4 and Pdo.9 (table 12). Epi- 



dotes forming part of the alteration assemblages 
of plagioclases (sausserite) are aluminous, Pd3.5. 
This indicates that matrix and sausserite epi- 
dotes have not equilibrated with one another. 



3 

CC 



u- 



6.8 
6.6 
6.4 
6.2 
6.0 



0.6 

0.5 

0.4 

0.3- 

0.2 

0.1 

0.0 



0.30 



□ A 15 






□□ 



I A 1 



. P 
DO 
□ 



A« U 



» 



J_A *_*& I A 



u*£$ 



''A 



= rd V 

A A D A 



M 



D 


Conner 


• 


Sims 


♦ 


griesen 


A 


sausserite 


1)30 




0.25 




0.20 




0.15 




0.10 




0.05 




00 





0.4 



0.3 

1-0.2 

0.1 



— 1 1 1 1 1 — 

0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 



0.0 



cation Fe/(Fe+Mg) 



Figure 10. Sims pluton, NC muscovite varia- 
tion diagrams for vi Al, Fe, Mg, and F with 
Fe/(Fe + Mg). Muscovite compositional 
data from table 5. afu = atomic formula 
units. 



16 



* Conner granitoid 
° Sims granitoid 




Ab 



An 



Figure 11. Sims pluton, NC feldspar composi- 
tions plotted on the ternary end-member Or 
(K) - Ab (Na) - An (Ca) diagram. Feldspar 
compositional data from table 6. 



Ti02 



rutile 




ilmenite 



□ Conner granitoid 

0.70 



Sims granitoid 



60 

+ 



PL, 



c 
o 



0.65 

0.60 

0.55- 

0.50- 

0.45- 

0.40- 



j- 



B 

ripidolite 



bninsvigite 



pycnochlorite 



2.6 



2.7 



2.8 2.9 

Si, afu 



3.0 



3.1 



hematite 



Fe,MnO 



magnetite Fe203 



Figure 12. Sims pluton, NC oxide composi- 
tions projected onto a cation Ti — Fe +2 , Mn — 
Fe +3 ternary diagram. Mineral composi- 
tional data from tables 7, 8, 9, and 10. 



Figure 13. Sims pluton, NC chlorite composi- 
tions projected onto Si vs. cation Fe/ 
(Fe+Mg) bivariate diagram. Mineral com- 
positional data from table 11. afu = atomic 
formula units. 



Other Minerals 

The carbonate minerals of the granitoids are 
calcites with up to 6 mol % substitution of Mn 
and 2 mol % Fe (table 13). The titanites are A1-, 
Fe-, and F-rich (table 14). 

The abundant, transparent radioactive min- 
eral in the Conner granitoids showed only x- 
ray spectra of REE, Th, and P. This composi- 
tional information combined with the optical 
properties of the mineral indicates that they are 
probably monazites. By contrast, the major 
REE-bearing mineral of the Sims granitoid is 
allanite. 

GEOPHYSICAL EXPRESSION 

Gravity expression 

The Sims pluton is evident on large-scale 
gravity maps (Haworth et al., 1980; Lawrence, 
1996) as a negative -40 mgal anomaly perturb- 



17 



ing the regional field (fig. 14). The anomaly co- 
incides with the mapped pluton. The thickest 
section of the pluton coincides with the Sims 
granitoid. The granitoids have a relatively large 
density contrast with the enclosing Eastern slate 
belt rocks of 0.13 g cm" 3 (table 1). This large 
density contrast, but near coincidence of the 
gravity anomaly with the granitoid outcrop, 
indicates that there is not a much larger portion 
of the pluton hidden at depth. 

Aeromagnetic expression 

The Sims pluton shows a positive 200-300 
gamma anomaly compared to the regional field 



(fig. 15). The anomaly is most pronounced for 
the southwestern part of the pluton. This is 
where the Conner granitoid, which normally 
contains little magnetite, contains the most 
magnetite. 

In the immediate vicinity of the pluton there 
are two northeast trending positive anomalies 
(fig. 15). That in the northwest corner of the 
map area is of a regional scale and coincides 
with increased abundance of volcanic rocks in 
the Eastern slate belt; the Stanhope formation 
metavolcanics and mafic metavolcanics (fig. 2b). 
The anomaly adjacent to the eastern margin of 
the pluton is a more local feature. All rocks are 




Figure 14. Bouguer gravity anomaly map for the Sims pluton and vicinity (Lawrence, 1996). 
Shaded triangles indicate location of the observations. 



18 




Figure 15. Aeromagnetic map for the vicinity of the Sims pluton, N.C. (U. S. Geological Survey, 
1976). Values are residual, negative magnetic intensity in gammas. 



covered by Coastal Plain sediments in this area. 
Given its location and limited extent, it could 
be the magnetic expression of the contact aure- 
ole similar to that found by Speer (1981) for the 
Liberty Hill, S.C. pluton. However, the anomaly 
does extend some distance from the pluton and 
is found to coincide with a basaltic flow or tuff 
unit containing abundant magnetite presum- 
ably formed during regional metamorphism 
(Carpenter et. al v oral communication, 1994). 

Aeroradiometric expression 

The Sims pluton coincides with a positive 
200-800 total gamma ray count anomaly as com- 
pared to the regional field (fig. 16). This is 



readily explained by the higher radioactive ele- 
ment content (K, U, Th) of the granitoids as com- 
pared to the enclosing Eastern slate belt. 

The anomaly has two, well-defined maxima 
within it. The maximum at the northwest cor- 
ner of the pluton coincides with an area of abun- 
dant, exposed outcrops of the high U Conner 
granitoid and aplite dikes. Away from this area 
within the pluton, the outcrop and number of 
aplite dikes are less abundant and the pluton 
becomes increasingly covered by Coastal Plain 
sediments. The reason for the radiometric maxi- 
mum at the northeastern corner of the Sims plu- 
ton is less clear. This is the location of the 
Neverson Quarry. This single large exposure 



19 




Figure 16. Aeroradioactivity map for the vicinity of the Sims pluton, N.C. (U.S. Geological 
Survey, 1975). Values are total count gamma ray intensity. 



of exposed Sims granitoid might represent suf- 
ficient contrast with the covering Coastal Plain 
sediments to cause the maximum. The maxi- 
mum could be associated with a local concen- 
tration of radioactive minerals within the heavy 
mineral deposits of the Coastal Plain sediments. 

SOIL AND GROUNDWATER RADON 

The soil-gas and groundwater radon con- 
tents over the Sims pluton and wall rocks were 
reported by Speer (unpub. data, 1992, 1994). 
Radon contents of the soil-gas and groundwa- 
ter of the overlying Coastal Plain rocks contain- 
ing the Bailey South heavy-mineral deposit are 
reported by Speer (unpub. data, 1994). Loca- 
tions of the sample sites and soil-gas radon con- 
centrations are shown in Figures 17 and 18. The 
comparable diagrams for the groundwater ra- 
don are figures 19 and 20. Numerical results 



are in tables 15 and 16. 

The median soil-gas radon associated with 
the granitoid is 2,289 pC/1 (N=24). These soil- 
gas radon contents were among the highest 
sampled over granitoids in the southern Appa- 
lachians. This is expected because the Sims plu- 
tons also is among the highest U granitoids in 
the southern Appalachians with an average of 
11.13 ppm for the Conner granitoid and 5.45 
ppm for the Sims granitoid. The average ura- 
nium content of 600 Alleghanian granite 
samples from the southern Appalachians is 4.9 
ppm U (Speer, unpub. data. 1994). Most high 
soil-gas radon values of the granitoid are located 
in the northwestern corner of the pluton (fig. 
18) which is the same location of a positive 
aeroradiometric anomaly (fig. 16). By contrast, 
the soil-gas radon contents over the surround- 
ing Eastern slate belt is 1,192 pC/1 (N = 8). 



20 




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24 



The groundwater radon contents of the Sims at the Neverson Quarry (Councill, 1954). The 

pluton, NC are high. The median value is 20,251 quarry is currently operated for crushed stone 

pC/1 with a range of 2,970 to 65,895 pC/1 (N = by the Nello Teer Company. 
29). There is no discernible difference in 

groundwater radon concentrations between the The Neverson Quarry is located at the north- 
Conner and Sims granitoids. The highest val- east corner of the pluton within the 
ues are located just to the west of the Neverson equigranular Sims granitoid (fig. 2a). The noted 
Quarry (fig. 20), in the vicinity of the positive property of this rock is its hardness. Los Ange- 
aeroradiometric anomaly (fig. 16). Groundwa- les Abrasion Test results for the stone, as well 
ter from the surrounding Eastern slate belt have as the specific gravity and sodium sulfate 
markedly lower radon contents, with a median soundness of various size fractions are given in 
value of 2,041 pC/1 (N = 16). table 17. The xenomorphic texture of the rock 

contributes to its hardness. The megacrystic 

The soil gas radon sample sites of the Bailey Conner granitoid would be expected to have 

South heavy-mineral deposit were located in the somewhat higher (softer) L. A. wear numbers 

same areas as the augured drill holes used to of 40-60, characteristic of more automorphic 

outline the deposit (Carpenter and Carpenter, granular granitoids. Thus the best aggregate 

1991; R. Carpenter, oral communication). The stone resource of the Sims pluton is confined to 

median soil-gas radon content is 323 pC / 1 with the Sims granitoid . Outcrops of the Sims grani- 

a range of 57 to 1482 pC / 1. Four groundwater toid may be steep-sided monadnocks buried by 

radon measurements are between 632 and 6,780 the surrounding Coastal Plain sediments. This 

pC/1. Shallow wells were used for sampling to is confirmed by drilling in the case of the 

avoid obtaining water from the underlying Sims Neverson Quarry by the Nello Teer Company 

granitoid or Eastern slate belt. These relatively (James Izzell, oral communication) and sus- 

low radon values show that the Bailey South pected by the occurrence of the other outcrops, 
deposit, while possibly a gamma-ray source, is 

not associated with high soil gas 222 radon. This Stone from other sources, but similar in tex- 

could be explained by either a relatively low ture and color to both the Conner and Sims 

abundance of U-bearing heavy minerals in this granitoids, is widely used as dimension stone 

deposit or the inability of radon to escape from or decorative facing. The Conner has a coarsely 

these minerals, primarily the zircon. Produc- colored mottling because of the large alkai feld- 

tion of short-lived 220 radon (thoron) as a result spar megacrysts. The Sims is even-grained and 

of the Th-bearing minerals of the deposit is un- locally brilliantly colored light to moderate red. 

known. Dimension stone resources require an ability to 

quarry large, fracture-free rock. This cannot be 

ECONOMIC RESOURCES readily determined from surface outcrops. 

While the few rock outcrops of the Sims pluton 

g TONE are not fractured, these may be the exception 

and the reason they outcrop. 

The stone of older houses in the area and 
the worked field boulders indicate that the Sims mica 

pluton has been quarried on a small, but wide- 

spread basis for dimension stone for some time. The rocks of the § reisen zone of the Sims 

Commercial quarrying for stone began in 1917 P luton comprise 40-100 modal % muscovite. 

25 



The remainder is dominantly quartz. The area mary of investigations by the Lindgren Explo- 

of abundant greisen outcrop and float is 1 .5 km ration Company of what initially was called the 

long and up to 0.3 km wide. Both drilling and Conner anomaly. The anomaly was eventually 

examination of surface float show that greisen concluded to result from a porphyry-type min- 

does not constitute all of the bedrock in this eralization of the Sims (= Conner) pluton. 
large area, but they do indicate it is abundant 

and can be the dominant rock in bodies up to Following up on the reconnaissance discov- 
0.2 km in size. This is a potential mica resource ery of the Conner anomaly, Cu and Mo analy- 
and was evaluated by the N. C. Geological Sur- ses of 850 soil and 70 rock samples and geologi- 
vey and the Minerals Research Laboratory, cal mapping at a scale of 1:1000 were done by 
Asheville, NC (Carpenter, et al., 1995). The Kiff and Schell (unpub. data, 1969). They rec- 
mica, which is high in potassium as compared ognized the presence of the Atlantic Coastal 
to other sources, would make excellent flux Plain and sampled at locations or depths to 10 
coating of welding rods and may be suitable for feet to avoid the sediment cover. Kiff and Schell 
dusting rubber compounds. Drawbacks to this identified four favorable areas in the vicinity of 
mica are the high grinding hardness, low bright- the Sims pluton: [1] disseminated molybdenite 
ness, and high bulk density. The latter two mineralization in the Neverson Quarry, referred 
could be improved by more efficient grinding to in company reports as the northeast area, [2] 
to finer particle sizes. For other uses the mica a greisen zone along the western margin of the 
could be mixed with material from other sources pluton containing anomalous W and Mo and 
to meet specifications. Given the mineralogy referred to as the southwest area, [3] anoma- 
of the greisen and the occurrence of greisen lous Mo values at the granitoid-slate belt con- 
within the Conner granitoid, potential by-prod- tact in the vicinity of the junction of State Roads 
uct minerals include quartz and feldspar. 1100 and 1104 and referred to as the northwest 

area, and [4] anomalous Cu mineralization in 

Base Metals sericitized and silicified Eastern slate belt rocks 

along the western contact of the pluton. Only 

The Sims pluton was extensively investi- the first three areas were pursued in subsequent 

gated for possible base metal resources by the exploration work. Vertical sampling of the 

Lindgren Exploration Company of Wazaya, weathering profiles of the granitoids showed 

Minnesota between 1965 and 1979. The metals that Mo decreased and Cu remained unchanged 

of interest were copper, molybdenum, tin, and with depth. Vertical sampling profiles over the 

tungsten. The program began with a literature Eastern slate belt showed an equal number of 

research and scouting of the southeastern increases and decreases of Cu content with 

United States that lead to the conclusion that depth. The soil Cu and Mo data were analyzed 

there was the potential for discovery of eco- by the log-probability method of Lepeltier 

nomic mineral deposits by the use of geochemi- (Cook, unpub. data, 1972). Soil samples col- 

cal and geophysical exploration techniques lected over the granitoid had average Cu back- 

(Lindgren, unpub. data, 1967). Reconnaissance grounds of 15 ppm and a determined anoma- 

geochemical sampling of the soils of the Caro- lous threshold of 35 ppm, with 3% of the 

lina slate belt in Virginia and North Carolina samples being at this level or higher. Average 

by Kiff (unpub. data, 1968) located several ar- Mo backgrounds were 1 ppm and a determined 

eas with anomalous Cu and Mo, including the anomalous threshold of 5 ppm, with 6% of the 

area of the Sims pluton. Given here is a sum- samples being greater than this amount. Sum- 

26 



mary maps of the Lindgren geochemical results drill holes totaling 3,100 feet into bedrock the 

are shown in figures 21 (Cu) and 22 (Mo), following year. Eleven holes were drilled within 

Clearly evident are the reasons for Kiff and the greisen in the southeast area and 4 holes 

Schell's conclusion that the anomalous base were drilled in the northwest to locate the plu- 

metal occurrences are zoned. The higher Cu ton contact (fig. 2b). Holes were started in both 

values are associated with the slate belt rocks the pluton and adjacent wall rocks. There was 

and are peripheral to the high Mo values within 2,570 feet of core recovered. The petrography, 

the granitoids. This zoning could be a feature mineralogy, alteration, and Cu, Mo, Sn, W, and 

of a hydrothermal convection system formed Zn geochemistry of those drillcores were de- 

by the intrusion of the Sims pluton, or a feature scribed by Claus and Smith (unpub. data, 1970). 

of the original lithologies. The Mo would be a Four-inch lengths of the core sampled at 10-foot 

magmatic feature but the elevated Cu concen- intervals were split and analyzed for Mo and 

trations of the slate belt could be an original fea- Cu and for W and Sn at 20-foot intervals. A 

ture of those rocks. Worthington and Kiff (1970) few Zn analyses were made as well. The aver- 

suggested that low-grade gold ores in the Caro- age Cu content of the Eastern slate belt drillcore 

lina slate belt were largely conformable and al- was 69 ppm (30 samples) compared to the av- 

most entirely within the basal volcanic unit or erage granitoid Cu content of 17 ppm (235 

a short distance stratigraphically above it. This samples). The few Zn analyses also showed 

might be true for base metal mineralization as higher values for the Eastern slate belt (121 ppm, 

well. The slate belt Cu anomaly outlined by the 2 samples) "than for the granitoid (27 ppm, 3 

Lindgren Exploration Company is in a compa- samples). Average granitoid Mo (5.6 ppm, 234 

rable position at the transition between samples), Sn (6.6 ppm, 111 samples), and W (130 

metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks (Car- ppm, 130 samples) contents were not signifi- 

penter et al., 1995) (figs. 2a and 21). cantly different from Eastern slate belt rock Mo 

(5.6 ppm, 30 samples), Sn (5.7 ppm, 14 samples), 
Kiff and Schell (unpub. data, 1969) sug- and W (4.7 ppm, 14 samples). All of these metal 
gested a drilling program as the next explora- concentrations are higher than those reported 
tion step. A drilling program on the right-of- for this study in table 3. However, the rocks 
way of the state roads was considered. How- analyzed in table 3 were specifically chosen to 
ever, state law required that any record of test be free of any mineralization, 
drilling be furnished to the State Highway Com- 
mission for public record. This was unaccept- Claus and Smith (unpub. data, 1971) identi- 
able. As an alternative, prospecting agreements fied three mineralization environments in the 
and options for mineral leases from local land- drillcores: [1] Quartz-mica greisen containing 
owners were obtained (Claus and Smith, unpub. pyrite, chalcopyrite, and possibly some molyb- 
data, 1970). In 1970 twenty- two, rotary drill denite. The greisen was considered a phyllic 
holes, to depths of 9 to 55 feet were drilled in alteration. [2] Molybdenite- pyrite-, arsenopy- 
the northwest and southeast areas. Ninety drill rite-, and chalcocite-bearing quartz-calcite veins, 
cutting samples from these holes were analyzed These occur as networks of closely spaced cross- 
for Cu and Mo, and some for W. The results cutting and narrow gray to milky quartz veins 
showed that the Cu-Mo anomalies found in the in granitoids and contorted veins in the East- 
soils (figs. 21 and 22) were associated with bed- ern slate belt. The rocks adjacent to the quartz 
rock mineralization. This conclusion was suffi- veins are bleached and show argillic alteration, 
cient to justify the drilling of fifteen diamond [3] Molybdenite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and 

27 




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29 



galena in open and vuggy quartz veins both pluton had porphyry Mo mineralization. Sodic 

within the pluton and, more commonly, wall plagioclase-rich and alkali feldspar-rich 

rocks near the pluton contact. Claus and Smith granitoids were distinguished. However, the 

(unpub. data, 1971) concluded that the three sample size may have been inappropriate for 

mineralization environments represented sue- the large grain-size of the Sims granitoid and 

cessively lower temperature-pressure condi- much smaller than the scale of modal inhomo- 

tions. They also concluded that the site of min- geneity usually encountered. Hausen recog- 

eralization was structurally controlled. The nized that the molybdenite mineralization oc- 

larger greisen bodies have linear map trends, curred in late brittle fractures with sericite, 

and the smaller ones are steeply dipping tabu- quartz, and calcite. He argued that the miner- 

lar bodies in outcrop. The other two mineral- alization was late and formed at relatively low 

izations occur as fracture vein fillings. temperatures. Hausen concluded that it could 

not be determined if the mineralization was of 

The last phase of exploration of the Sims the porphyry type, based on their limited sam- 

pluton by the Lindgren Exploration Company pling, but that the features found were encour- 

was reported by Bartlett and Johnson (unpub. aging, 
data, 1979), and Bartlett (unpub. data, 1975). 

Their mapping revealed the composite nature DISCUSSION 

of the Sims pluton; the fades were most readily 

distinguished by the size of the alkali feldspars. Tne composite nature of the Sims pluton 

Potash enrichment was found in the Neverson could result f rom eit h er the simultaneous ar- 

Quarry to be associated with visible dissemi- rival of differing magmas at the site of emplace- 

nated molybdenite (Mo <1 - 3100 ppm) and ment/ or portions of the same magma crystal- 

chalcopyrite (Cu 5-10 ppm). Magnetic traverses lizing under different conditions. The Sims and 

across the pluton contacts discovered the mag- Conner granitoids are nearly identical in their 

netic high located along the eastern contact of mo dal and major and trace element composi- 

the pluton buried beneath the coastal plain sedi- tions Significant compositional differences 

ments (fig. 15). Its source could not be deter- between the two are limited to higher S, U, Nb, 

mined. No anomalies were detected in the gre- Ta Li/ Be/ Rb, Sr, Cs concentrations in the 

isen zone by 13 VLF-EM traverses. No Sn or W Conner, and higher transition metal Zn, Pb, Cu 

minerals were found in 32 heavy mineral sepa- concentrations in the Sims. The two fades also 

rates from the soils above the greisen. Earlier differ in texture and mineral assemblages. The 

examination of heavy mineral separates from Conner is inequigranular with alkali feldspar 

soils showed about 30% of a fluorescent min- me gacrysts. The Conner has monazite, abun- 

eral thought to be barite(Kiff and Schell, unpub. d ant sulfides, and only minor magnetite 

data, 1969). whereas the Sims contains allanite, modally rare 

sulfides, and major magnetite. Biotites of the 

Newmont Exploration Limited of Danbury, Conner granitoid are more iron-rich, F-rich, and 

CT also investigated the Sims plutons as a mo- aluminous than those in the Sims. The only 

lybdenum prospect (Hausen, unpub. data, observation of the contact between the two fa- 

1979). The company examined the texture, min- cies indicates a gradational contact. Taken to- 

eralogy, and selected element concentrations of g et her, these characteristics indicate that the 

12 'small' samples collected from the Neverson composite Sims pluton formed from a single 

Quarry. They wanted to determine if the Sims ma g ma batch that crystallized under differing 

30 



conditions. This possibility is also allowed for Thus the difference in mineralogy between 

by the close Nd isotopic compositions for the the two facies of the Sims pluton resulted from 

two facies (Samson et al., 1995). either the differing temperatures of last equili- 
bration or fluid behavior. There are several in- 

The differing biotite Fe/(Fe+Mg) values of dications that it is differences in fluid behavior 

the Conner (0.60) and Sims (0.46) and modal that is responsible for the composite nature of 

rarity of magnetite in the Conner granitoid in- the Sims pluton and not differing closure tem- 

dicate the Fe-Mg [MgFe.i] exchange for biotites peratures. 
of the two rocks can be related by the reaction: 

The Sims granitoid is interior to the Conner 

Conner Fe-rich biotite + O2 <=> Sims Mg-rich granitoid. This suggests that the source of the 

biotite + K feldspar + magnetite. fluid participating in the mineral reactions is 

the magma. Dissociation of H2O and loss of 

Based on this reaction, it is concluded that bi- H2, rather than influx of fluid from the wall 

otite Fe/(Fe+Mg) and the abundance of mag- rocks, accounts for the relatively oxidized na- 

netite in the granitoids differ because of differ- ture of the Sims granitoid. The evidence points 

ing oxygen pressure (Wones and Eugster, 1965). to a crystallization history for the Sims pluton 

consistent with the models presented by 

There are two possible ways such a differ- Whitney (1975). The magma was emplaced into 

ence could arise: the shallow crust (less than 4 kbars, correspond- 
ing to a pressure less than the aluminum sili- 

[1] Crystallization under buffered oxygen cate triple point). The magma intruded at these 

fugacity conditions with the Sims conditions would have had insufficient volatile 

granitoids preserving higher and the element content to attain vapor saturation. As 

Conner granitoids preserving lower heat is lost and temperature drops, the 

temperature mineral assemblages. inequigranular Conner granitoid was pro- 
duced. The large alkali feldspars form because 

[2] If the mineral assemblages in the two of low nucleation rate of this mineral, compared 

lithologies of the pluton last equilibrated to the plagioclase and quartz, 
at about the same temperature, oxygen 

fugacity was higher in the Sims than in As the magma crystallized, the fluid com- 
the Conner granitoids. In the Sims, this ponents concentrated in the residual liquid, 
could result from entry of oxidized fluid Saturation occured when the solidifcation sur- 
from the wall rocks or from elsewhere face was close to the mapped gradational 
in the pluton, or by the dissociation of Conner-Sims granitoid boundary. From the 
its contained magmatic H2O and loss of pressure estimate and relative volumes of the 
H2. In the Conner, production of mag- two lithologies, this would mean that the origi- 
matic or high-temperature subsolidus nal magma contained an approximate equiva- 
OH-bearing minerals would preferen- lent of 2 to 3 weight percent water. With vapor 
tially consume O2 from any H20-bear- saturation, the rate of crystallization with fall- 
ing fluid and produce H2. Such min- ing temperatures accelerated. A more 
eral reactions would be promoted by equigranular texture resulted as the nucleation 
influx of aqueous fluids, from either the rate of most phases became nearly equal, 
wall rocks or from elsewhere in the plu- 
ton. 

31 



The vapor phase concentrated H2O, CI, and pluton. The occurrence of the mineralizations 

S from the melt, as well as silica, K, and metals in linear zones and fractures indicates a struc- 

of economic interest, which are then capable of tural control. One or more times during these 

being transported to and deposited in the min- fluid migrations, the redistribution of the trace 

eralized areas. The fluid phase separated in elements, the S, U, and especially the hydrophile 

equilibrium with the crystalline residue and elements Li, Be, Rb, Sr, and Cs to the Conner 

therefore contained low but significant concen- could have occurred. These elemental differ- 

trations of hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide. The ences and the F-rich composition of the gre- 

oxygen released in this process from the H2O, isen muscovite suggests a significant portion the 

OH, and oxidized sulfur complexes in the migrating fluid is magmatic in origin. Exten- 

magma caused the oxygen activity of the resi- sive fluid separation from the magma would 

due to rise, stabilizing oxidized phases. The also explain the abundance of aplite dikes in the 

combination of iron extraction and relative oxi- northwest corner of the pluton. This would 

dation of the iron buffering assembages explains eventually result in the differing accessory min- 

the biotite compositions and modal mineralogy eralogy of the granitoids in that area and ac- 

in the Sims granitoid. count for the radioactivity and radon anoma- 
lies as well. 

The volatile phase transported elements of 

economic interest to the northwest and south- The Sims pluton was intruded at a depth cor- 

west contacts of the pluton. In doing so, the responding to a pressure less than the alumi- 

fluids passed through the already crystallized num silicate triple point. This is about 4 kbars, 

Conner granitoid surrounding what would be- or depths less than 15 km. This is shallow 

come the Sims granitoid. In most places the flu- enough to permit extensive fluid exchange be- 

ids reacted with the granitoid to produce mag- tween the country rocks and magma. Did that 

matic or high-temperature subsolidus OH-bear- occur? The Rb-Sr crystallization age of 288 ± 13 

ing alteration mineral assemblages which con- Ma and cooling ages of 262 ± 13 Ma indicate 

sumed H2O from the fluid and the available O2, cooling of the pluton was rapid, within the time 

resulting in reduced mineral assemblages. uncertainty of radiometric age determinations. 

The contact metamorphic effects in the Sims 

Indications that fluid behavior played a cru- aureole are minor, and confined to a narrow 
cial role in the evolution of the Sims pluton also zone. These observations indicate that dehy- 
makes more understandable the feature of the dration of the wall rocks and uptake of the 
Sims pluton that distinguishes it from the other evolved fluid by the magma were minimal, per- 
Alleghanian plutons of the southern Appala- haps because of insufficient time, 
chians; its mineralization. Segregation and mi- 
gration of a fluid to the western margins' of the ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
pluton was necessary to form the greisen zone 

by replacement of the Conner granitoid. On the Field mapping and analytical work on the 

basis of the mineralogy change, this replace- rocks and minerals were performed as part of a 

ment required the addition of Mo, K and H2O, cooperative effort (COGEOMAP, contract 

possibly Si and Al, and loss of Fe, Mg, Ca, Na, Agreements 14-08-0001-A0657 and 14-08-0001- 

and Ti. Subsequent, and lower temperature A0742) between the North Carolina Geological 

fluid migration are necessary to form the min- Survey and the U. S. Geological Survey. Radon 

eralized fractures widespread through-out the investigations were done under a cooperative 

32 



agreement between the U. S. Geological Survey 
and N. C. State University (Speer, unpub. data, 
1992; unpub. data, 1994). Donald W. Lindgren 
provided both his hospitality and access and 
permission to use the wealth of information col- 
lected by the Lindgren Exploration Company. 
James Izell arranged access to Nello Teer's 
Neverson Quarry. Robert H. Carpenter pro- 
duced the computer-drawn maps, work that is 
much appreciated. The manuscript benefited 
from reviews by James A. Whitney, P. Albert 
Carpenter, III, Robert H. Carpenter, Harry Y. 
McSween, and Jeffrey C. Reid. 

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Spanjers, R. P., 1983, Lineament and fracture 



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Continental Crust: its composition and evo- 
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ford, 312 p. 



34 



U. S. Geological Survey, 1975, Aeroradioactivity Carolina slate belt, North Carolina: 

maps of parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and Greenville, Eastern Carolina University, M.S. 

North Carolina, Total Count Gamma Ray In- Thesis, 63 p. 

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U.S. Geological Survey, 1976, Aeromagnetic in four synthetic rock compositions: Journal 

maps of parts of Georgia, South Carolina, and of Geology, v. 83, p. 1-31. 

North Carolina, Residual Magnetic Intensity: 

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Carolina Geological Survey, Open-File Report 

Wedemeyer, R. C, 1981, Geochemistry and geo- 79 " 3 ' X sheet ' scale 1:125 ' 000 - 
chronology of the Sims granitoid, Eastern 



35 



Table 1. Modal Analysis, Sims pluton, 
Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 



quartz 

alkali feldspar 
plagioclase 
color index 

grid size, mm 
number of points 



Conner granitoid 




Sims 


granitoid 




SI-3 


SI-4 


SI-11 


SI-14 


SI-26 


SI-27 


29.4 


- 


- 


23.4 


29.7 


27.6 


38.2 


- 


- 


36.3 


34.3 


29.2 


28.3 


- 


- 


38.5 


34.6 


39.4 


4.1 


- 


- 


1.6 


1.2 


3.5 


5 


- 


_ 


5 


5 


5 


1800 


- 


- 


1113 


1234 


1171 



specific gravity 2.65+01 2.651.01 2.651.01 2.651.01 2.641.01 2.651.01 



36 



Table 2. Rock Major Element Analyses, Sims pluton, 
Nash and Wilson counties, North Carolina 





Conner gran 


itoid 


Sims granitoid 


f 


Alleghanian 


granitoids 




SI-3 

74.97 


SI-4 
74.12 


SI-11 

74.5 


SI-14 
73.95 


SI-26 
73.86 


SI-27 
73.56 


mean 


std. dev. 


Si0 2 


71.26 


3.49 


Ti0 2 


0.26 


0.26 


0.26 


0.30 


0.29 


0.29 


0.36 


0.22 


A1 2 3 


13.85 


13.57 


13.74 


14.27 


13.82 


14.28 


14.81 


1.14 


Fe203 


0.58 


1.12 


0.27 


1.15 


1.11 


1.59 


1.02 


0.41 


FeO 


0.99 


0.49 


0.71 


0.80 


0.75 


0.34 


1.12 


0.75 


MnO 


0.05 


0.01 


0.06 


0.05 


0.05 


0.05 


0.06 


0.05 


MgO 


0.48 


0.43 


0.42 


0.51 


0.50 


0.50 


0.63 


0.44 


CaO 


1.33 


1.16 


1.21 


1.57 


1.44 


1.53 


1.66 


0.80 


Na 2 


3.79 


3.77 


3.91 


3.86 


3.74 


3.96 


3.78 


0.56 


K 2 


4.49 


4.85 


4.67 


4.53 


4.73 


4.69 


4.70 


0.86 


H 2 0+ 


0.45 


0.53 


0.40 


0.47 


0.62 


0.59 


0.32 


0.24 


H 2 0- 


0.13 


0.16 


0.09 


0.08 


0.11 


0.11 


0.10 


0.05 


p 2 o 5 


0.19 


0.16 


0.17 


0.19 


0.17 


0.18 


0.13 


0.09 


BaO 


0.05 


0.05 


0.05 


0.08 


0.07 


0.07 


0.08 


0.04 


co 2 


<0.2 


0.3 


<0.2 


<0.2 


<0.2 


0.3 


0.30 


0.15 


F 


0.09 


0.09 


0.09 


0.08 


0.09 


0.09 






CI 


0.02 


0.01 





0.01 





0.02 






S 


0.04 


0.07 


0.02 











0.028 


0.028 


O = F,C1,S 


-0.06 


-0.08 


-0.05 


-0.04 


-0.04 


-0.04 






TOTAL 


101.75 


101.15 


100.57 


101.9 


101.34 


102.15 








petrochemical parameters 












Fe +2 /(Fe +2 +Fe +3 ) 


0.791 


0.494 


0.853 


0.607 


0.601 


0.322 






Fe/(Fe+Mg) 


0.594 


0.564 


0.527 


0.592 


0.583 


0.542 






A/CNK 


1.025 


1.001 


1.004 


1.012 


0.995 


0.994 










CIPW norms 












quartz 


32.58 


32.02 


31.01 


30.7 


30.8 


30.16 






orthoclase 


26.66 


28.78 


27.72 


26.97 


28.12 


27.89 






albite 


31.92 


31.83 


33.09 


32.59 


31.65 


33.36 






anorthite 


4.82 


2.26 


4.34 


6.09 


5.49 


3.98 






corundum 


0.98 


1.27 


0.63 


0.75 


0.49 


1.21 






hypersthene 


2.12 


1.07 


1.77 


1.39 


1.32 


1.25 






magnetite 


0.84 


0.61 


0.39 


1.67 


1.61 


0.42 






ilmenite 


0.49 


0.49 


0.49 


0.57 


0.55 


0.55 






hematite 




0.70 








1.30 






apatite 


0.45 


0.38 


0.40 


0.45 


0.40 


0.43 






halite 


0.03 


0.02 




0.02 




0.03 






fluorite 


0.15 


0.16 


0.15 


0.13 


0.15 


0.15 






pyrite 


0.07 


0.13 


0.04 












TOTAL 


101.13 


99.72 


100.04 


101.31 


100.58 


100.73 







37 



Table 3. Rock Trace Element Analyses, Sims pluton, 
Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 





Conner granitoid 


Sinn 


; granitoid 




Alleghanian granitoids 




SI-3 
33 


SI-4 
36 


SI-11 

35 


SI-14 
27 


SI-26 SI-27 
26 29 


mean 


std. dev. 


Li, ppm 


30 


17 


Be 


3.7 


4 


4.2 


2.8 


3.3 


3.3 


3.2 


1.8 


B 


5 


5 


<5 


<5 


5 


5 


10.8 


5.8 


F 


860 


940 


860 


820 


880 


910 


915 


614 


CI 


200 


100 


<100 


100 


<100 


200 


157.1 


78.7 


Sc 


5.5 


5.5 


5.5 


4.5 


5.5 


5.5 


4.7 


2.1 


V 


30 


32 


28 


33 


33 


31 


27.9 


17.5 


Cr 


14 


17 


20 


16 


15 


16 


12.5 


9.4 


Co 


1 


<1 


1 


1 


<1 


1 


7 


5.1 


Ni 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


2 


5.5 


4.5 


Cu 


8 


11 


7 


5 


4 


4 


20.5 


16.1 


Zn 


40 


38 


38 


48 


47 


54 


52.3 


16.9 


Ga 


14 


14 


16 


14 


14 


14 


15.2 


4.7 


Ge 


<5 


<5 


<5 


<5 


<5 


<5 


10 


10 


Rb 


214 


220 


200 


170 


161 


165 


188.5 


66.8 


Sr 


89 


98 


89 


122 


106 


109 


237.5 


226.5 


Y 


20 


15 


20 


15 


20 


20 


33.1 


27.6 


Nb 


40 


40 


45 


20 


30 


25 


22.4 


12.8 


Mo 


<1 


1 


<1 


<1 


<1 


<1 


2.6 


3.6 


Cd 


<0.1 


<0.1 


<0.1 


<0.1 


<0.1 


<0.1 


0.15 


0.1 


Sn 


<2 


<2 


<2 


<2 


<2 


<2 


1.1 


0.4 


Cs 


7 


6.5 


3.5 


1 


2 


3.5 


2.7 


1.7 


La 


42 


44 


45 


46 


44 


47 


72.2 


33.1 


Ce 


100 


90 


92 


94 


88 


94 


125.9 


71.8 


Pr 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 


10 




Nd 


15 


20 


25 


30 


30 


35 


42.4 


28.5 


Sm 


4.8 


4.7 


4.9 


4.6 


5.4 


5.1 


7.4 


3.8 


Eu 


<0.5 


0.5 


<0.5 


1 


0.5 


<0.5 


1.3 


0.8 


Gd 


<50 


<50 


<50 


<50 


<50 


<50 


6.1 


4 


Tb 


0.3 


0.4 


0.6 


0.3 


<0.1 


<0.1 


0.9 


0.5 


Dy 


2 


3 


2 


1 


2 


2 


4.7 


2.4 


Ho 


<1 


<1 


<1 


<1 


<1 


<1 






Er 


<20 


<20 


<20 


<20 


<20 


<20 


2 


1.4 


Tm 


<1 


1 


<1 


<1 


1 


<1 


1 




Yb 


2.1 


1.9 


1.3 


2 


2 


1.8 


2.3 


1.2 


Lu 


0.3 


0.2 


0.3 


0.3 


0.3 


0.3 


0.4 


0.2 


Hf 


10 


12 


12 


14 


12 


14 


10.9 


4.7 


Ta 


4 


2 


4 


<2 


<2 


<2 


5.1 


4.9 


W 


<2 


<2 


<2 


<2 


<2 


<2 


1 




Pb 


7 


7 


7 


8 


10 


10 


33.3 


25.6 


Th 


26 


22 


25 


25 


24 


29 


24.7 


12.2 


U 


11 


11 


12 


6 


5 


6 


5.6 


4.8 






38 









[N 


IN 


CN 


NO 


CN 


oo 


•* 


Tjt 


CN 


rH 


tN 


rf 


rH 


CO 


00 




IN 


CO 


o 


00 


oo 


CO 


IN 


LO 


rH 


IN 


rH 


NO 


"tf 


00 


LO 


NO 


s 


00 


















o 


IN 

co 


fN 


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LO 


d 


d 


H 


r-i 


d 


d 


CO 


CO 














■J3 




































































Erj 


Lo 


CO 


to 


55 




O 


U 




o 


CO 


00 


CN 


-* 


CO 


CN 


LO 


CN 


NO 


00 


CO 


r-< 


o 


rH 




ON 


rH 


o 


LO 


o 


ON 


NO 


o 


o 


CO 


** 


OI 


ON 


© 


NO 


"* 


o 


CO 


NO 


rN 


00 


On 


o 




S 






NO 

co 


00 


NO 

1— 1 


CN 
CN 


tx 


CN 


O 


o 


<* 


NO 


o 


LO 


NO 


co 


CO 




IN 


CN 


o 


3 


co 


NO 


ON 


tN 


rH 


o 


rH 


IN 


00 


OI 


CN 


LO 


o 


NO 
















LO 


CN 


d 


IN 


d 


d 


ON 


d 


d 


CO 


ON 


d 


ON 




LO 


*tf 


o 


co 


oo 


o 


NO 


NO 


o 


O 


00 


oq 


o 


CO 


NO 


o 


© 














■>* 






























ON 




ON 




LO 


oi 


00 


d 


d 


oi 


d 


H 


LO 


d 


d 


rH 


r-i 


d 


© 


CO 


Tji 
















a; 






IX 


ON 


T-I 


rH 


o 


CN 


rH 


00 


co 


OI 


LO 


LO 


LO 


NO 


ON 




oo 


CN 


o 


00 


-* 


NO 


NO 


rH 


LO 


OI 


LO 


OI 


ON 


CO 


CN 


LO 


© 


CO 














1 






LO 

co 


LO 


NO 

rH 


co 

CN 


LO 


IX 


o 


o 


NO 


oo 


o 


>* 


tN 


CO 


CO 




LO 


1 


o 


rH 


o 


o 


NO 


ON 


00 


o 


OI 


rH 


CO 


^ 


O 


oo 


o 


NO 
















^ 


oi 


d 


oi 


d 


d 


ON 


d 


d 


CO 


o< 


d 


ON 




LO 


o 


LO 


CO 


o 


o 


IN 


NO 


o 


o 


ON 


ON 


© 


^ 


LO 


o 


d 














H 






























ON 




ON 




LO 


oi 


00 


d 


d 


CO 


d 


rH 


LO 


d 


d 


H 


r-i 


© 


d 


CO 


^ 








N 

e 

10 














I— 1 


00 


o 


<* 


LO 


rH 


rH 


^t< 


o 


■* 


LO 


NO 


5 


CN 


OI 




rH 


ON 


o 


rH 


NO 


IN 


o 


On 


CO 


OI 


OI 


r—i 


LO 


OI 


Cn 


ON 


00 


r-i 


QJ 
















LO 

CO 


NO 


IN 

rH 




IX 


NO 


O 


o 


NO 


IN 


o 


-* 


co 


rH 




O 


ON 


o 


3 


rH 


o 


o 


IN 


s 


o 


rH 


OI 


CO 


rH 


nC 


rH 


ON 


NO 






3 


£ 










co 


CN 


CN 


d 


IN 


d 


d 


o< 


d 


d 


CO 


oo 


d 


00 




LO 


•* 


o 


CO 


00 


rH 


IN 


o 


O 


On 


ON 


O 


CO 


NO 


ON 


d 


O 


S 


CT 

.a 


QJ 


































ON 




ON 




LO 


oi 


00 


d 


d 


oi 


d 


H 


LO 


d 


d 


rH 


r-i 


d 


d 


CO 


CO 




2 


o 
3 


o 












CN| 


tN 


rH 


CO 


NO 


NO 


rH 


"* 


o 


NO 


"* 


o 


"* 


ON 


LO 




ON 


rH 


o 


o 


oo 


LO 


o 


00 


rH 


CO 


rH 


00 


OI 


rH 


tN 


ON 


IN 


CO 


x 


c 

o 


3 


o 










LO 

CO 


CN 


IN 

r-i 


CN 
CN 


tx 


co 


O 


o 


NO 


NO 


o 


LO 


00 


CN 


LO 




rH 


00 


o 


IN 


NO 


rH 


o 


rH 


IN 


o 


rH 


rH 


CO 


rH 


CN 


LO 


On 


NO 


*c 




.2 


Xi 








CN 


oi 


d 


in 


d 


d 


ON 


d 


d 


CO 


oo 


d 


oo 




LO 


"* 


o 


NO 


CN 


ON 


rH 


IN 


NO 


o 


O 


ON 


ON 


© 


co 


NO 


ON 


© 




.2 


J 


.2 


































On 




ON 




Lfi 


oi 


00 


d 


d 


oi 


d 


r-^ 


LO 


d 


d 


rH 


r-i 


d 


d 


CO 


CO 




to 


.s 


s 


H 

re 

s 










Cx 


NO 


CO 


NO 


Tj< 


CN 


2 


IN 


LO 


CO 


•* 


o 


LO 


CN 


CO 




CN 


00 


o 


tN 


00 


IN 


IN 


NO 


LO 


NO 


CN 


LO 


CO 


rH 


rH 


ON 


r-i 


"tf 


aS 


B 










NO 
CO 


"* 


NO 
rH 


oo 


tx 


00 


o 


o 


LO 


IN 


o 


LO 


LO 


co 


OI 




O 


ON 


o 


ON 


oo 




O 


^ 


■* 


o 


CN 


ON 


OI 


^ 


NO 


OI 


O 


LO 


co 














rH 


CN 


d 


00 


d 


d 


ON 


d 


d 


CO 


tN 


d 


tN 




IN 


CN 


o 


NO 


CN 


•* 


o 


LO 


o 


O 


00 


ON 


o 


CO 


NO 


© 


© 


00 


CO 

rji 


co 


fN 


m 


































ON 




ON 




LO 


oi 


00 


d 


d 


oi 


d 


oi 


LO 


d 


d 


rH 


r-i 


© 


© 


CO 


<* 




Ch 

C/5 


to 


CO 


to 


55 


































U 










g 












6 








6 








£ 


rt 

Ph, 


r< 


tN 


m 


** 


in 








o 


o 


q 


o 


O 
c 


ft 


O 

u 


q 

(8 


o 






o 


3 


+ 

Ph 
II 


o 
H 






> 


3 


- 






C 


00 


3 
in 


m 
U 


«3 




3 
cn 






X 


3 




















co 


H 


< 


QJ 
Ph 


S 2 


2 


« 


Ph 


U 


X 


o 




CO 


< 




< 


H 


QJ 
Ph 


2 S 




2 


X 




U 


Ph 


o 




Ph 















Table 5. Muscovite Analyses, Sims Pluton, Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 

















Conner granitoid 
















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


Si0 2 


46.3 


44.5 


48.7 


45.5 


45.0 


47.1 


47.1 


46.3 


44.7 


46.1 


44.6 


45.0 


47.5 


46.9 


46.1 


Ti0 2 


0.98 


1.42 


0.42 


0.09 


0.61 


0.11 


0.04 


0.08 


0.76 


0.05 


0.63 


0.85 


1.12 


2.39 


1.01 


A1A 


28.2 


30.6 


25.8 


34.1 


28.5 


28.9 


35.8 


38.6 


29.8 


36.4 


29.9 


27.7 


27.7 


25.8 


29.5 


FeO 


4.64 


3.67 


4.95 


1.70 


5.82 


3.73 


0.40 


0.51 


4.86 


0.51 


4.90 


4.96 


5.37 


5.08 


4.70 


MnO 


0.11 


0.12 


0.11 


0.06 


0.09 


0.00 


0.07 


0.02 


0.10 


0.08 


0.06 


0.07 


0.11 


0.04 


0.01 


MgO 


1.86 


1.52 


2.46 


0.53 


2.25 


2.57 


0.08 


0.10 


1.51 


0.05 


1.43 


2.59 


2.27 


2.39 


1.42 


CaO 


0.01 


0.01 


0.22 


0.02 


0.01 


0.02 


0.11 


0.11 


0.01 


0.02 


0.01 


0.01 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


Na 2 


0.18 


0.40 


1.95 


0.42 


0.23 


0.18 


0.75 


1.23 


0.31 


0.39 


0.42 


0.23 


0.17 


0.15 


0.26 


K 2 


10.7 


10.7 


8.74 


10.8 


10.9 


10.8 


10.4 


9.50 


10.7 


10.3 


10.6 


10.6 


11.2 


10.7 


10.9 


F 


0.38 


0.31 


0.37 


0.12 


0.42 


0.29 


0.07 


0.08 


0.27 


0,07 


0.33 


0.41 


0.48 


0.33 


0.19 


CI 


0.02 


0.01 


0.01 


0.00 


0.02 


0.02 


0.02 


0.03 


0.01 


0.00 


0.02 


0.01 


0.02 


0.01 


0.01 


H 2 


4.11 


4.15 


4.16 


4.33 


4.06 


4.20 


4.47 


4.55 


4.14 


4.44 


4.10 


4.04 


4.15 


4.14 


4.24 


Sum 


97.49 


97.41 


97.89 


97.67 


97.91 


97.92 


99.31 


101.11 


97.17 


98.41 


97.00 


96.47 100.09 


97.93 


98.35 


0=F+C1 


0.16 


0.13 


0.16 


0.05 


0.18 


0.13 


0.03 


0.04 


0.12 


0.03 


0.14 


0.17 


0.21 


0.14 


0.08 


Total 


97.33 


97.28 


97.73 


97.62 


97.73 


97.79 


99.28 


101.07 


97.05 


98.38 


96.86 


96.30 


99.88 


97.79 


98.27 










number c 


f cations on the basis of 24 (O, OH, F, CI) 










Si 


6.456 


6.201 


6.728 


6.220 


6.321 


6.500 


6.262 


6.028 


6.275 


6.180 


6.267 


6.372 


6.497 


6.537 


6.369 


Al iv 


1.544 


1.799 


1.272 


1.780 


1.679 


1.500 


1.738 


1.972 


1.725 


1.820 


1.733 


1.628 


1.503 


1.463 


1.631 


sum 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


Al" 


3.097 


3.224 


2.927 


3.711 


3.026 


3.194 


3.867 


3.954 


3.200 


3.923 


3.227 


3.000 


2.955 


2.777 


3.176 


Ti 


0.103 


0.149 


0.044 


0.009 


0.064 


0.011 


0.004 


0.008 


0.080 


0.005 


0.067 


0.090 


0.115 


0.250 


0.105 


Fe 


0.542 


0.429 


0.572 


0.194 


0.684 


0.430 


0.044 


0.056 


0.571 


0.057 


0.576 


0.587 


0.614 


0.592 


0.544 


Mn 


0.013 


0.014 


0.013 


0.007 


0.011 


0.000 


0.008 


0.002 


0.012 


0.009 


0.008 


0.008 


0.013 


0.005 


0.001 


Mg 


0.387 


0.315 


0.507 


0.108 


0.471 


0.528 


0.016 


0.019 


0.316 


0.010 


0.301 


0.546 


0.463 


0.496 


0.294 


sum 


4.142 


4.131 


4.063 


4.029 


4.256 


4.163 


3.939 


4.039 


4.179 


4.004 


4.179 


4.231 


4.160 


4.120 


4.120 


Ca 


0.001 


0.001 


0.033 


0.003 


0.002 


0.003 


0.016 


0.015 


0.002 


0.003 


0.002 


0.002 


0.000 


0.000 


0.002 


Na 


0.049 


0.107 


0.523 


0.111 


0.063 


0.048 


0.193 


0.311 


0.086 


0.101 


0.115 


0.063 


0.046 


0.040 


0.071 


K 


1.901 


1.901 


1.541 


1.873 


1.946 


1.900 


1.755 


1.579 


1.914 


1.764 


1.893 


1.915 


1.950 


1.906 


1.927 


sum 


1.951 


2.009 


2.097 


1.987 


2.011 


1.951 


1.964 


1.905 


2.002 


1.868 


2.010 


1.980 


1.996 


1.946 


2.000 


CI 


0.005 


0.002 


0.002 


0.000 


0.006 


0.005 


0.005 


0.007 


0.002 


0.000 


0.005 


0.002 


0.005 


0.002 


0.004 


F 


0.168 


0.135 


0.162 


0.052 


0.186 


0.127 


0.029 


0.033 


0.122 


0.030 


0.147 


0.182 


0.206 


0.145 


0.083 


OH 


3.826 


3.862 


3.835 


3.945 


3.805 


3.865 


3.965 


3.956 


3.874 


3.969 


3.846 


3.814 


3.785 


3.846 


3.910 


sum 


3.999 


3.999 


3.999 


3.997 


3.997 


3.997 


3.999 


3.996 


3.998 


3.999 


3.998 


3.998 


3.996 


3.993 


3.997 


F/(FM) 


0.58 


0.58 


0.53 


0.64 


0.59 


0.45 


0.73 


0.75 


0.64 


0.85 


0.66 


0.52 


0.57 


0.54 


0.65 


1 SF8-318 










6 SI-3, muse w/ chl. 






11 SI-4 






2 SI-2a, matrix muscovite w/ biotite 




7 SI-3, muse in plag 






12 SI-7 






3 Si-2a, muse in plag 








8 SI-3a, muse w/ plag 






13 SI-11 






4 SI-2a, muse in plag 


■ 






9 SI-3b, enclave, matrix muse w/ bt 


14 SI-14, matrix ms w/ bt 


5 SI-3, matrix muse i 


n 1 biot 






10 SI-3b, muse in plag 






15 SI-21a, matrix ms w/ bt 



40 



Table 5 ( 


cont.). 


Muscovite A 


nalyses, Sim 


3 Pluto 


n,Nas 


hand A 


/Vilson Cc 


)unties, 


North 


Carol 








Sims granitoid 








aplite 
24 


greisen 
25 26 






16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


27 


sio 2 


47.4 


47.1 


47.0 


46.2 


47.8 


46.3 


47.0 


46.2 


48.2 


45.9 


46.6 


46.1 


Ti0 2 


0.37 


1.88 


0.18 


0.17 


0.19 


0.61 


0.57 


0.04 


0.25 


0.75 


0.06 


0.75 


A1 2 3 


26.2 


26.7 


27.1 


28.9 


27.7 


26.9 


28.8 


35.7 


28.2 


31.6 


32.4 


31.3 


FeO 


5.14 


5.00 


5.14 


3.85 


4.86 


4.90 


4.77 


1.58 


4.25 


3.54 


2.90 


3.51 


MnO 


0.06 


0.07 


0.13 


0.09 


0.05 


0.12 


0.08 


0.00 


0.11 


0.01 


0.01 


0.03 


MgO 


2.70 


2.33 


2.55 


1.57 


2.62 


2.63 


2.12 


0.39 


2.41 


1.15 


0.99 


1.13 


CaO 


0.03 


0.00 


0.04 


0.02 


0.01 


0.04 


0.01 


0.00 


0.01 


0.10 


0.04 


0.02 


Na 2 


0.14 


0.13 


0.16 


0.24 


0.16 


0.23 


0.27 


0.93 


0.12 


0.55 


0.59 


0.49 


K 2 


10.9 


10.7 


10.4 


10.3 


11.1 


11.0 


10.9 


10.3 


11.3 


9.88 


10.4 


10.4 


F 


0.34 


0.31 


0.42 


0.12 


0.36 


0.21 


0.30 


0.13 


0.39 


0.24 


0.33 


0.34 


CI 


0.01 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


H 2 


4.12 


4.18 


4.09 


4.20 


4.19 


4.16 


4.22 


4.43 


4.20 


4.25 


4.24 


4.21 


Sum 


97.41 


98.40 


97.21 


95.66 


99.04 


97.10 


99.05 


99.72 


99.44 


97.97 


98.56 


98.29 


0=F+C1 


0.14 


0.13 


0.18 


0.05 


0.15 


0.09 


0.13 


0.06 


0.16 


0.10 


0.14 


0.14 


Total 


97.27 


98.27 


97.03 


95.61 


98.89 


97.01 


98.92 


99.66 


99.28 


97.87 


98.42 


98.15 



Si 6.634 6.524 6.578 6.506 6.568 6.505 6.451 6.167 

Al iv 1.366 1.476 1.422 1.494 1.432 1.495 1.549 1.833 

sum 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 

A1 V1 2.955 2.874 3.048 3.303 3.050 2.970 3.112 3.772 

Ti 0.039 0.195 0.019 0.018 0.019 0.065 0.059 0.004 

Fe 0.602 0.579 0.602 0.453 0.558 0.576 0.548 0.176 

Mn 0.007 0.008 0.015 0.011 0.005 0.014 0.009 0.000 

Mg 0.564 0.481 0.530 0.329 0.537 0.551 0.434 0.078 

sum 4.167 4.137 4.214 4.114 4.169 4.176 4.162 4.030 

Ca 0.004 0.001 0.006 0.003 0.001 0.006 0.002 0.000 

Na 0.037 0.035 0.042 0.066 0.043 0.063 0.072 0.240 

K 1.951 1.898 1.848 1.850 1.953 1.966 1.912 1.745 

sum 1.992 1.934 1.896 1.919 1.997 2.035 1.986 1.985 

CI 0.002 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.005 

F 0.149 0.138 0.186 0.053 0.154 0.093 0.130 0.055 

OH 3.846 3.857 3.811 3.944 3.844 3.903 3.867 3.941 

sum 3.997 3.996 3.998 3.997 3.999 3.996 3.999 4.001 

F/(FM) 0.52 0.55 0.53 0.58 0.51 0.51 0.56 0.69 



6.574 6.297 6.337 6.326 

1.426 1.703 1.663 1.674 

8.000 8.000 8.000 8.000 

3.112 3.401 3.531 3.379 

0.026 0.077 0.007 0.078 

0.485 0.406 0.330 0.403 

0.013 0.001 0.001 0.004 

0.490 0.235 0.201 0.231 

4.126 4.120 4.070 4.095 

0.001 0.015 0.005 0.003 

0.032 0.146 0.156 0.131 

1.975 1.729 1.807 1.812 

2.008 1.890 1.968 1.946 

0.000 0.000 0.001 0.002 

0.168 0.104 0.142 0.147 

3.825 3.891 3.855 3.848 

3.993 3.995 3.998 3.997 

0.50 0.63 0.62 0.64 



16 F7-163, matrix muscovite w/ biot 

17 SI-14, matrix biotite 

18 SI-14, overgrowth on biotite 

19 SI-14, muse in plag 

20 SI-26, muse overgrown on biotite 

21 SI-27, muse in plag. 



22 SI-27a, enclave, matrix muse w/ biot 

23 SI-27a, muse w/ plag + cal 

24 SI-27b, matrix muse 

25 SF7-318.2 

26 SF8-319, light muscovite zone 

27 SF8-319, dark muscovite zone 



41 





Table 6. Feldspar Analyses, Sims Pluton 


, Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 
















Conner granitoid 
















1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


Si0 2 


65.2 


65.5 


63.5 


63.3 


63.6 


62.0 


62.3 


64.7 


66.5 


66.3 


62.1 


62.7 


60.6 


62.8 


Ti0 2 


0.01 


0.04 


0.00 


0.03 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.00 


A1 2 3 


21.5 


21.2 


21.4 


21.6 


18.3 


18.1 


22.1 


22.0 


21.1 


21.0 


18.3 


21.5 


22.2 


21.1 


FeO 


0.00 


0.05 


0.05 


0.09 


0.00 


0.14 


0.01 


0.04 


0.06 


0.06 


0.09 


0.07 


0.20 


0.00 


MnO 


0.00 


0.03 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.07 


0.04 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.02 


0.00 


0.02 


MgO 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


CaO 


2.56 


2.35 


2.41 


2.59 


0.02 


0.01 


3.53 


2.79 


1.13 


2.11 


0.03 


2.50 


3.42 


2.24 


Na z O 


10.1 


10.1 


9.91 


9.98 


0.29 


0.56 


9.56 


10.5 


11.4 


10.4 


0.43 


10.2 


9.67 


10.3 


K 2 


0.32 


0.61 


0.56 


0.34 


16.5 


15.8 


0.19 


0.21 


0.08 


0.16 


16.2 


0.15 


0.30 


0.46 


Total 


99.71 


99.88 


97.81 


97.94 


98.74 


96.69 


97.74 100.20 


100.25 


100.02 


97.14 


97.11 


96.37 


96.84 












number of cations on 


the basis of 8 (O) 










Si 


2.878 


2.890 


2.864 


2.852 


2.985 


2.973 


2.817 


2.851 


2.913 


2.911 


2.968 


2.850 


2.789 


2.863 


Aliv 


1.120 


1.103 


1.136 


1.146 


1.014 


1.022 


1.179 


1.140 


1.088 


1.085 


1.028 


1.148 


1.203 


1.131 


Ti 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


sum 


3.998 


3.994 


4.000 


3.999 


3.999 


3.996 


3.996 


3.991 


4.001 


3.996 


3.996 


3.999 


3.992 


3.994 


Fe 


0.000 


0.002 


0.002 


0.003 


0.000 


0.006 


0.000 


0.001 


0.002 


0.002 


0.004 


0.003 


0.008 


0.000 


Mn 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.003 


0.002 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


Mg 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.001 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


Ca 


0.121 


0.111 


0.116 


0.125 


0.001 


0.001 


0.171 


0.132 


0.053 


0.099 


0.002 


0.122 


0.169 


0.109 


Na 


0.865 


0.861 


0.867 


0.871 


0.026 


0.052 


0.839 


0.895 


0.970 


0.886 


0.040 


0.894 


0.863 


0.906 


K 


0.018 


0.034 


0.032 


0.020 


0.987 


0.966 


0.011 


0.012 


0.004 


0.009 


0.985 


0.009 


0.018 


0.027 


sum 


1.004 


1.009 


1.017 


1.020 


1.014 


1.029 


1.023 


1.040 


1.030 


0.997 


1.032 


1.029 


1.058 


1.044 
















components 














An 


12.1 


11.0 


11.4 


12.3 


0.1 


0.1 


16.7 


12.7 


5.2 


10.0 


0.2 


11.9 


16.1 


10.5 


Ab 


86.2 


85.6 


85.4 


85.7 


2.6 


5.1 


82.2 


86.1 


94.4 


89.1 


3.9 


87.2 


82.2 


86.9 


Or 


1.8 


3.4 


3.2 


2.0 


97.3 


94.8 


1.1 


1.2 


0.4 


0.9 


95.9 


0.9 


1.7 


2.6 




1 SF8-318 










8 SI-2b, plag rim 












2 SF8-318 










9SI-3 














3 SI-2a 












10 SI-3 














4 SI-2a 












11 SI-3 














5 SI-2b 












12 SI-3b, enclave 












6 SI-2b 












13 ST3b, enclave 












7 SI-2b 












14 SI-3b, enclave 











42 



Table 6. (cont.) Feldspai 


• Analyses, Sims Pluton, Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 














Conner granitoid 
















15 


16 


17 


18 


19 


20 


21 


22 


23 


24 


25 


26 


27 


28 


SiO z 


65.0 


66.4 


62.1 


63.2 


66.4 


68.1 


61.2 


62.3 


63.3 


67.6 


65.7 


62.4 


66.5 


63.5 


TiO z 


0.00 


0.01 


0.05 


0.03 


0.01 


0.01 


0.01 


0.03 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.03 


0.00 


0.03 


A1 2 3 


20.9 


19.7 


18.5 


22.5 


19.6 


19.8 


23.3 


22.8 


23.1 


19.3 


21.1 


18.4 


19.6 


18.3 


FeO . 


0.11 


0.13 


0.00 


0.00 


0.17 


0.10 


0.08 


0.24 


0.00 


0.04 


0.02 


0.11 


0.03 


0.06 


MnO 


0.02 


0.00 


0.04 


0.00 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.02 


0.00 


0.00 


0.02 


0.02 


0.03 


0.00 


MgO 


0.00 


0.02 


0.01 


0.02 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.00 


CaO 


1.73 


0.51 


0.02 


3.62 


0.55 


0.61 


4.97 


4.07 


4.19 


0.13 


1.80 


0.02 


0.17 


0.06 


Na 2 


10.7 


11.1 


0.92 


9.55 


10.8 


11.3 


8.64 


9.16 


9.65 


11.7 


10.5 


0.65 


11.1 


0.57 


K 2 


0.10 


0.34 


15.2 


0.18 


0.89 


0.11 


0.15 


0.39 


0.18 


0.17 


0.29 


16.2 


0.91 


15.7 


Total 


98.56 


98.21 


96.84 


99.10 


98.46 


100.05 


98.35 


99.01 : 


100.45 


98.94 


99.44 


97.85 


98.34 


98.22 



number of cations on the basis of 8 (O) 



Si 2.900 2.962 2.962 2.818 2.962 

Aliv 1.098 1.037 1.043 1.180 1.032 

Ti 0.000 0.000 0.002 0.001 0.000 

sum 3.998 3.999 4.007 3.999 3.994 

Fe 0.004 0.005 0.000 0.000 0.006 

Mn 0.001 0.000 0.002 0.000 0.000 

Mg 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.002 

Ca 0.083 0.024 0.001 0.173 0.026 

Na 0.925 0.960 0.085 0.825 0.933 

K 0.006 0.019 0.925 0.010 0.051 

sum 1.019 1.009 1.014 1.009 1.018 



2.976 2.760 2.790 

1.020 1.236 1.202 

0.000 0.000 0.001 

3.996 3.996 3.993 



2.791 2.987 2.902 2.962 2.968 2.987 

1.199 1.007 1.098 1.031 1.030 1.014 

0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.001 

3.991 3.994 4.000 3.994 3.998 4.002 



An 
Ab 
Or 



8.2 

91.2 

0.6 



2.4 

95.7 

1.9 



0.1 

8.4 
91.5 



17.2 

81.8 

1.0 



2.6 

92.4 

5.0 



0.004 0.003 0.009 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.004 0.001 0.002 

0.001 0.000 0.001 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.001 0.000 

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.001 0.001 0.000 0.000 

0.029 0.240 0.195 0.198 0.006 0.085 0.001 0.008 0.003 

0.961 0.755 0.796 0.825 1.006 0.903 0.060 0.962 0.052 

0.006 0.009 0.022 0.010 0.010 0.016 0.980 0.052 0.944 

1.001 1.007 1.023 1.033 1.023 1.007 1.047 1.024 1.001 
components 

2.9 23.9 19.2 19.2 0.6 8.5 0.1 0.8 0.3 

96.5 75.2 78.6 79.9 98.4 89.9 5.8 94.1 5.2 

0.6 0.9 2.2 1.0 1.0 1.6 94.1 5.1 94.5 



15 SI-3b, enclave 


22 SI-4, grain core 


16 SI-3b, enclave, exsolv. alk. fsp. 


23 SI-4, grain near rim 


17 SI-3b, enclave, exsolv. alk. fsp. 


24 SI-4, grain rim 


18 SI-3b, enclave, plag w/ms 


25 SI-4, exsolv. alk. fsp 


19 SI-3b, enclave, plag. rim 


26 SI-4, exsolv. alk. fsp 


20 SI-3b, enclave, w/ms + cal 


27 SI-4, exsolv. alk. fsp 


21 SI-3b, enclave, clot plag. 


28 SI-7, exsolv. alk. kfs 



43 



Table 6. (cont.) Feldspar Analyses, Sims Pluton, Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 










Conner granitoid 










Sims 


granitoid 




29 


30 


31 32 


33 


34 


35 


36 


37 


38 


39 


40 


41 


SiO z 


63.7 


64.4 


67.2 63.6 


64.0 


67.3 


64.3 


63.9 


65.1 


63.3 


63.2 


67.4 


64.0 


TiO z 


0.00 


0.01 


0.01 0.00 


0.03 


0.01 


0.03 


0.01 


0.00 


0.00 


0.03 


0.00 


0.03 


A1 2 3 


22.9 


22.2 


19.8 18.6 


18.1 


20.1 


23.3 


18.3 


22.5 


23.1 


18.1 


19.5 


21.6 


FeO 


0.00 


0.07 


0.06 0.00 


0.00 


0.08 


0.00 


0.15 


0.00 


0.08 


0.05 


0.03 


0.04 


MnO 


0.06 


0.00 


0.05 0.02 


0.01 


0.00 


0.00 


0.06 


0.02 


0.00 


0.00 


0.02 


0.00 


MgO 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


CaO 


3.96 


3.30 


0.14 0.00 


0.08 


0.86 


3.90 


0.02 


3.27 


4.36 


0.01 


0.33 


3.16 


Na 2 


9.41 


9.95 


11.8 0.45 


0.55 


11.6 


9.66 


0.44 


9.77 


9.39 


0.27 


11.2 


10.1 


K 2 


0.22 


0.22 


0.14 16.2 


16.1 


0.11 


0.18 


15.9 


0.20 


0.24 


16.3 


0.71 


0.28 


Total 


100.25 


100.15 


99.20 98.87 


98.87 


100.06 


101.38 


98.80 


100.86 


100.47 


97.96 


99.20 


99.21 










number of 


cations ( 


on the basis of 8 (O) 








Si 


2.810 


2.840 


2.966 2.976 


2.994 


2.951 


2.804 


2.988 


2.846 


2.790 


2.989 


2.978 


2.850 


Aliv 


1.188 


1.153 


1.030 1.028 


1.000 


1.038 


1.196 


1.011 


1.157 


1.201 


1.008 


1.016 


1.135 


Ti 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


sum 


3.998 


3.993 


3.996 4.004 


3.995 


3.989 


4.001 


3.999 


4.003 


3.991 


3.998 


3.994 


3.986 


Fe 


0.000 


0.003 


0.002 0.000 


0.000 


0.003 


0.000 


0.006 


0.000 


0.003 


0.002 


0.001 


0.001 


Mn 


0.002 


0.000 


0.002 0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.002 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


Mg 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


Ca 


0.187 


0.156 


0.007 0.000 


0.004 


0.040 


0.182 


0.001 


0.153 


0.206 


0.001 


0.016 


0.151 


Na 


0.804 


0.851 


1.013 0.041 


0.050 


0.988 


0.817 


0.040 


0.828 


0.803 


0.025 


0.963 


0.870 


K 


0.012 


0.012 


0.008 0.967 


0.960 


0.006 


0.010 


0.950 


0.011 


0.013 


0.984 


0.040 


0.016 


sum 


1.005 


1.022 


1.032 1.009 


1.014 


1.037 


1.010 


1.000 


0.993 


1.025 


1.012 


1.022 


1.038 














components 












An 


18.6 


15.3 


0.7 0.0 


0.4 


3.9 


18.0 


0.1 


15.4 


20.2 


0.1 


1.6 


14.6 


Ab 


80.2 


83.5 


98.5 4.1 


4.9 


95.6 


81.0 


4.0 


83.5 


78.6 


2.5 


94.5 


83.9 


Or 


1.2 


1.2 


0.8 95.9 


94.7 


0.6 


1.0 


95.9 


1.1 


1.3 


97.4 


3.9 


1.5 




29 SI-7, plag. near core 








36 SI-21a 












30 SI-7, plag. near rim 








37 SI-21a 












31 SI-7, exsolv. alk. kfs 








38 SI-21a 












32 SI-7, exsolv. alk. kfs 








39 SF7-163, exsolv. alk. fsp. 








33 SI-11 










40 SF7-163, exsolv. alk. fsp. 








34 SI-11, plag. rim 








41 SF7-163, 


plag. near core 








35 SI-11, plag. near core 


k 






42 SF7-163 


plag. near rim 







44 



Table 6. 


(cont.) Feldspar Analyses, 


Sims Pluton, Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 












Sims 


• granitoid 








aplite 




42 


43 


44 


45 


46 


47 


48 


49 


50 


51 


52 


53 


Si0 2 


64.4 


66.5 


67.5 


62.8 


65.1 


69.1 


66.9 


63.3 


66.7 


68.4 


64.9 


67.7 


Ti0 2 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.02 


0.02 


0.02 


0.02 


0.02 


0.01 


0.01 


0.00 


0.01 


A1 2 3 


21.4 


20.6 


19.9 


18.0 


18.5 


20.5 


20.1 


18.4 


19.2 


19.7 


18.2 


20.5 


FeO 


0.13 


0.00 


0.10 


0.02 


0.00 


0.02 


0.00 


0.00 


0.04 


0.00 


0.01 


0.08 


MnO 


0.04 


0.00 


0.00 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.03 


0.00 


MgO 


0.01 


0.01 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.01 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.00 


0.00 


CaO 


2.66 


1.36 


0.32 


0.02 


0.09 


0.75 


0.59 


0.01 


0.32 


0.12 


0.02 


1.39 


Na 2 


10.0 


11.0 


12.0 


0.49 


0.49 


11.4 


11.7 


0.42 


11.5 


11.9 


0.44 


11.1 


K 2 


0.28 


0.16 


0.10 


15.1 


16.2 


0.16 


0.11 


16.5 


0.15 


0.09 


16.4 


0.11 


Total 


98.92 


99.63 


99.93 


96.50 


100.40 


101.96 


99.48 


98.65 


97.92 


100.23 


100.00 


100.89 












number 


of cations on i 


'he basis of 8 (O) 






Si 


2.870 


2.929 


2.962 


2.998 


2.997 


2.964 


2.948 


2.978 


2.982 


2.984 


3.004 


2.944 


Aliv 


1.124 


1.069 


1.028 


1.010 


1.002 


1.038 


1.045 


1.018 


1.009 


1.014 


0.991 


1.049 


Ti 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.001 


0.001 


0.001 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


sum 


3.994 


3.998 


3.990 


4.009 


4.000 


4.003 


3.994 


3.997 


3.991 


3.998 


3.995 


3.993 


Fe 


0.005 


0.000 


0.004 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.003 


Mn 


0.002 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


Mg 


0.001 


0.001 


0.001 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


0.002 


0.000 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.000 


Ca 


0.127 


0.064 


0.015 


0.001 


0.004 


0.034 


0.028 


0.001 


0.015 


0.006 


0.001 


0.065 


Na 


0.864 


0.941 


1.020 


0.045 


0.044 


0.945 


1.001 


0.038 


1.000 


1.004 


0.039 


0.932 


K 


0.016 


0.009 


0.006 


0.920 


0.949 


0.009 


0.006 


0.988 


0.009 


0.005 


0.966 


0.006 


sum 


1.015 


1.015 


1.046 


0.969 


0.997 


0.990 


1.038 


1.027 


1.025 


1.016 


1.007 


1.006 














CO 


mponents 










An 


12.6 


6.3 


1.4 


0.1 


0.4 


3.4 


2.7 


0.1 


1.5 


0.6 


0.1 


6.5 


Ab 


85.8 


92.8 


98.0 


4.7 


4.4 


95.6 


96.7 


3.7 


97.7 


98.9 


3.9 


92.9 


Or 


1.6 


0.9 


0.6 


95.2 


95.2 


0.9 


0.6 


96.2 


0.9 


0.5 


96.0 


0.6 






43 SF7-163, plag 


. rim 








50 SI-27, exsolv. alk. kfs. 






44 SI-14, ' 


w / cal 










51 SI-27a, enclave, plag 






45 SI-14, ] 


plagw 


/ ms + cal 










w/ ms + cal 






46 SI-14 












52 SI-27b, 










47 SI-26 












53 SI-27b, 










48 SI-27 
























49 SI-27, exsolv. alk. kfs 

















45 



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NO 



Table 8. Hematite Analyses, Sims Pluton, 
Nash and Wilson Counties, 



North Carolina 








Conner granitoid 




12 3 


Ti0 2 


14.9 0.02 0.01 


A1 2 3 


0.00 14.04 23.19 


Fe 2 3 


69.8 0.01 0.02 


FeO 


11.1 72.2 54.1 


MnO 


2.29 10.4 16.7 


MgO 


0.02 2.14 4.05 


Total 


98.11 98.81 98.07 


iber of cations on the basis of 3 


Ti 


0.298 0.280 0.461 


Al 


0.000 0.000 0.001 


Fe 3+ 


1.402 1.439 1.077 


Fe 2+ 


0.247 0.231 0.370 


Mn 


0.052 0.048 0.091 


Mg 


0.001 0.001 0.001 


sum 


2.000 1.999 2.001 




1 SI-7 




2 SI-7 




3 SI-7 



47 



Table 9. Magnetite Analyses, 
Sims Pluton, 
Nash and Wilson Counties, 
North Carolina 





Conner granitok 


I 




12 3 


4 


Si0 2 


0.05 0.02 0.02 


0.04 


Ti0 2 


0.17 0.00 0.00 


0.08 


A1 2 3 


0.06 0.05 0.04 


0.00 


Fe 2 3 


66.9 67.3 61.9 


63.2 


FeO 


30.4 30.3 27.9 


28.4 


MnO 


0.10 0.04 0.02 


0.17 


MgO 


0.02 0.00 0.01 


0.03 


Total 


97.70 97.71 89.89 

number of cations 
on the basis of 4 (O) 


91.92 


Ti 


0.005 0.000 0.000 


0.003 


Al 


0.003 0.002 0.002 


0.000 


Fe 3+ 


1.985 1.997 1.997 


1.993 


Fe 2+ 


1.004 1.000 1.000 


0.997 


Mn 


0.003 0.001 0.001 


0.006 


Mg 


0.001 0.000 0.001 


0.002 


sum 


3.001 3.000 3.001 


3.001 



1 SI-7 3 SI-14 

2 SI-7 4 SI-14 



48 



Table 10. Rutile Analyses, 

Sims Pluton, 

Nash and Wilson Counties, 

North Carolina 





Conner Sims 




1 2 


Si0 2 


0.00 0.10 


Ti0 2 


66.9 84.5 


A1 2 3 


0.05 0.10 


FeO 


9.08 2.83 


MnO 


0.04 0.08 


MgO 


0.01 0.01 


Nb 2 O s 


(?) 


Total 


76.08 87.62 


number of cations 


on the basis of 2 (0) 


Ti 


0.929 0.980 


Al 


0.001 0.002 


Fe 


0.140 0.037 


Mn 


0.001 0.001 


Mg 


0.000 0.000 


sum 


1.071 1.020 




1 SI-11 




2 SI-26 



49 



Table 11. Chlorite Analyses, Sims Pluton, 
Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 





Conner granitoid 






Sims granitoid 


aplite 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


Si0 2 


26.2 


24.6 


24.9 


27.7 


27.1 


28.0 


29.0 


28.5 


27.7 


Ti0 2 


0.25 


0.06 


0.07 


0.09 


0.04 


0.07 


0.00 


0.06 


0.06 


A1 2 3 


20.2 


20.8 


21.6 


18.9 


18.7 


18.9 


20.5 


20.3 


19.7 


FeO 


31.3 


32.3 


32.1 


26.2 


22.4 


22.7 


22.9 


23.3 


25.3 


MnO 


0.96 


0.99 


1.54 


1.09 


0.92 


0.70 


0.88 


0.91 


0.96 


MgO 


9.24 


9.36 


8.84 


13.7 


16.3 


15.7 


13.4 


15.8 


13.5 


CaO 


0.04 


0.01 


0.05 


0.03 


0.04 


0.08 


0.28 


0.04 


0.02 


Na 2 


0.07 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.01 


0.03 


0.07 


0.00 


0.00 


K 2 


0.64 


0.03 


0.01 


0.09 


0.02 


0.01 


0.07 


0.19 


0.51 


F 


0.17 


0.10 


0.06 


0.12 


0.19 


0.11 


0.04 


0.25 


0.20 


CI 


0.02 


0.02 


0.03 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.01 


0.01 


0.00 


H 2 


11.0 


10.9 


11.0 


11.3 


11.1 


11.3 


11.5 


11.6 


11.3 


Sum 


100.09 


99.17 100.20 


99.23 


96.82 


97.60 


98.65 


100.96 


99.25 


0=F+C1 


0.08 


0.05 


0.03 


0.05 


0.08 


0.05 


0.02 


0.11 


0.08 


Total 


100.01 


99.12 100.17 


99.18 


96.74 


97.55 


98.63 


100.85 


99.17 




number of cations 


on the basis of 18 (O, OH, F, CI) 




Si 


2.820 


2.687 


2.687 


2.931 


2.886 


2.954 


3.016 


2.905 


2.914 


A1 1V 


1.180 


1.313 


1.313 


1.069 


1.114 


1.046 


0.984 


1.095 


1.086 


sum 


4.000 


4.000 


4.000 


4.000 


4.000 


4.000 


4.000 


4.000 


4.000 


Al vi 


1.385 


1.364 


1.437 


1.285 


1.233 


1.303 


1.530 


1.339 


1.360 


Ti 


0.020 


0.005 


0.006 


0.008 


0.004 


0.006 


0.000 


0.005 


0.005 


Fe 


2.814 


2.956 


2.904 


2.312 


1.993 


2.002 


1.994 


1.988 


2.222 


Mn 


0.088 


0.092 


0.141 


0.098 


0.083 


0.062 


0.078 


0.079 


0.086 


Mg 


1.482 


1.527 


1.425 


2.150 


2.584 


2.461 


2.073 


2.403 


2.116 


Ca 


0.000 


0.001 


0.006 


0.003 


0.004 


0.009 


0.031 


0.004 


0.002 


Na 


0.015 


0.000 


0.000 


0.002 


0.000 


0.006 


0.014 


0.000 


0.000 


K 


0.088 


0.004 


0.001 


0.013 


0.003 


0.001 


0.009 


0.025 


0.068 


sum 


5.892 


5.949 


5.920 


5.871 


5.904 


5.850 


5.729 


5.843 


5.859 


CI 


0.004 


0.004 


0.005 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.002 


0.002 


0.000 


F 


0.058 


0.035 


0.021 


0.040 


0.066 


0.037 


0.013 


0.081 


0.067 


OH 


7.938 


7.962 


7.974 


7.960 


7.933 


7.963 


7.985 


7.918 


7.933 


sum 


8.000 


8.001 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.000 


8.001 


8.000 


F/(FM) 


0.66 


0.66 


0.67 


0.52 


0.44 


0.45 


0.49 


0.45 


0.51 


1 ST2b, matrix chlorite 




5 SF7-163, matrix chlorite 


2 ST3, matrix chlorite 




6 SI-14, ; 


intergrown w/ biotite 


3 ST3a, matrix chlorite 




7 SI-21a, 


, matrix chlorite 




4 SI-11, intergrown w/ biotite 


8 SI-27, : 


intergn 


Dwn w/ biotite 












9 SI-27b 


, matrix chlorite 





50 



Table 12. Epidote Analyses, Sims Pluton, North Carolina 










Conner granitoid 




Sims granitoid 
6 7 8 


aplite 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


9 


SiO z 


36.9 


41.1 


40.7 


37.9 


36.7 


37.0 


38.0 


38.6 


37.8 


Ti0 2 


0.04 


0.06 


0.07 


0.07 


0.02 


0.06 


0.03 


0.24 


0.16 


A1 2 3 


21.4 


31.0 


21.2 


22.0 


21.8 


22.0 


22.6 


21.6 


22.4 


Fe 2 3 


15.2 


1.75 


12.4 


14.4 


14.6 


14.4 


13.5 


14.2 


14.7 


MnO 


0.29 


0.14 


0.20 


0.42 


0.37 


0.33 


0.37 


0.20 


0.32 


MgO 


0.01 


0.13 


0.02 


0.01 


0.00 


0.02 


0.00 


0.01 


0.06 


CaO 


22.5 


21.3 


18.3 


23.0 


22.7 


22.8 


22.6 


23.6 


22.8 


Na 2 


0.00 


1.21 


1.86 


0.01 


0.00 


0.06 


0.00 


0.03 


0.04 


K 2 


0.03 


0.04 


0.12 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.00 


0.02 


0.19 


F 


0.01 


0.00 


0.04 


0.00 


0.01 


0.01 


0.05 


0.01 


0.04 


CI 


0.00 


0.03 


0.02 


0.01 


0.00 


0.02 


0.01 


0.02 


0.02 


H 2 


1.83 


1.95 


1.83 


1.87 


1.83 


1.84 


1.84 


1.87 


1.86 


Sum 


98.21 


98.71 


96.76 


99.69 


98.03 


98.54 


99.00 


100.40 


100.39 


0=F+C1 


0.00 


0.01 


0.02 


0.00 


0.01 


0.01 


0.02 


0.01 


0.02 


Total 


98.21 


98.70 


96.74 


99.69 


98.02 


98.53 


98.98 


100.39 


100.37 




number of cations 


on the basis of 13 (O, OH, F, CI) 




Si 


3.012 


3.147 


3.292 


3.036 


2.995 


3.004 


3.049 


3.065 


3.007 


Al iv 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


0.000 


sum 


3.012 


3.147 


3.292 


3.036 


2.995 


3.004 


3.049 


3.065 


3.007 


A1 V1 


2.054 


2.790 


2.017 


2.075 


2.100 


2.099 


2.134 


2.027 


2.099 


Ti 


0.002 


0.003 


0.004 


0.004 


0.002 


0.004 


0.002 


0.014 


0.010 


Fe 


0.932 


0.101 


0.753 


0.866 


0.897 


0.879 


0.815 


0.849 


0.882 


Mn 


0.020 


0.009 


0.014 


0.028 


0.025 


0.023 


0.025 


0.013 


0.022 


Mg 


0.002 


0.015 


0.002 


0.001 


0.000 


0.002 


0.000 


0.001 


0.007 


sum 


3.008 


2.903 


2.788 


2.973 


3.024 


3.007 


2.976 


2.904 


3.020 


Ca 


1.967 


1.743 


1.577 


1.976 


1.983 


1.984 


1.941 


2.006 


1.946 


Na 


0.000 


0.179 


0.292 


0.002 


0.000 


0.009 


0.000 


0.005 


0.006 


K 


0.003 


0.004 


0.012 


0.000 


0.001 


0.000 


0.001 


0.002 


0.019 


sum 


1.970 


1.926 


1.881 


1.978 


1.984 


1.993 


1.942 


2.013 


1.971 


CI 


0.000 


0.004 


0.003 


0.001 


0.003 


0.003 


0.001 


0.003 


0.003 


F 


0.003 


0.000 


0.010 


0.000 


0.000 


0.003 


0.013 


0.003 


0.010 


OH 


0.997 


0.996 


0.987 


0.999 


0.997 


0.995 


0.986 


0.995 


0.987 


sum 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.001 


1.000 


1.001 


1.000 










components 










Ps 


31.0 


3.5 


27.0 


29.2 


29.7 


29.3 


27.4 


29.4 


29.4 


Cz 


68.3 


96.2 


72.4 


69.9 


69.5 


69.9 


71.8 


70.2 


69.9 


Pd 


0.7 


0.3 


0.5 


0.9 


0.8 


0.8 


0.8 


0.4 


0.7 



1 SF8-318, epidote w/ ms. + bt. 

2 SI-3, epidote in plagioclase 

3 SI-4, epidote in plagioclase 

4 SI-11, epidote w/ ms. + chl. 

5 SI-21a, epidote w/ ms. + bt. 



6 SF7-163, epdiote w/ chl. 

7 SI-14, epidote w/ ms. + bt 

8 SI-27, epdiote w/ ms. + bt. 

9 SI-27b, matrix epidote 



51 



Table 13. Carbonate Analyses, Sims Pluton, 
Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 





Conner 




Sims 






1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


FeO 


0.45 


1.49 


0.72 


0.88 


0.00 


v MnO 


1.26 


4.35 


2.23 


3.15 


0.78 


MgO 


0.07 


0.29 


0.21 


0.38 


0.05 


CaO 


55.9 


51.6 


52.8 


55.7 


57.7 


co 2 


45.0 


44.4 


43.5 


46.6 


45.8 



Total 102.68 102.13 99.46 106.71 104.33 
number of cations on the basis of 3 (O) 



Fe 


0.006 


0.021 


0.010 


0.012 


0.000 


Mn 


0.017 


0.061 


0.032 


0.042 


0.011 


Mg 


0.002 


0.007 


0.005 


0.009 


0.001 


Ca 


0.975 


0.912 


0.953 


0.938 


0.988 


sum 


1.000 


1.001 


1.000 


1.001 


1.000 


C 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 


1.000 



1 SI-3a, calcite in plagioclase 

2 SI-3b, calcite in plagioclase 

3 SI-14, calcite in plagioclase 

4 SI-27, calcite w/ muscovite + plagioclase 

5 SI-27a, calcite in plagioclase 



52 



Table 14. Titanite Analyses, 

Sims Pluton, 

Nash and Wilson Counties, 

North Carolina 



Conner 




1 


2 


SiO z 


31.5 


22.0 


Ti0 2 


26.7 


40.8 


A1 2 3 


7.18 


2.65 


FeO 


2.11 


10.28 


MnO 


0.17 


4.21 


MgO 


0.12 


0.00 


CaO 


29.4 


19.6 


Na 2 


0.00 


0.01 


K 2 


0.02 


0.01 


F 


1.72 


0.64 


CI 


0.00 


0.01 


Sum 


98.92 




0=F+C 


0.72 




Total 


98.20 


100.21 



number of cations 
on the basis of 5 (O, OH, F, CI) 
Si 1.030 



Ti 


0.658 


Al 


0.277 


Fe 


0.052 


sum 


0.987 


Mn 


0.005 


Mg 


0.006 


Ca 


1.030 


Na 


0.000 


K 


0.001 


sum 


1.042 


CI 


0.000 


F 


0.176 


sum 


1.985 


1. SI-26, alter, of ilm, w/ ru 


2. SI-27a, mixture w/ ilm 



53 



Table 15. Soil-gas Radon Concentrations, Sims pluton area, North Carolina 



rock type Sample 



radon std. duplicate 

pC/1 dev. average rock type Sample 



radon std. duplicate 

pC/1 dev. average rock type Sample 



radon std. duplicate 
pC/1 dev. average 



Conner granitoid 










RnSI3 




4428 


19 




RnSI4 




2622 


21 




RnSI5 




2289 


19 




RnSI6 




2232 


22 




RnSI8 




1242 


13 




RnSIll 




3399 


16 




RnSI12 




682 


8 




RnSI13 




2756 


24 




RnSI14 




1371 


4 




RnSI15 




2261 


8 




RnSI17 




3248 


24 




RnSI22 




1799 


10 




RnSI23 




5215 


9 




RnSI24 




6341 


36 




RnSI25 




2057 


15 




RnSI26 




3238 


32 




RnSI27 




2413 


16 




RnSI28 




2675 


20 




RnSI28(dup) 


2730 


3 




RnSI33 




2119 


25 




RnSI34 




2177 


15 




RnSI35 




1093 


7 




average 


2652 






std. 


dev. 


1354 




Sims granitoid 










RnSI18 




3191 


24 




RnSI19 




1151 


10 




RnSI19(dup) 


1112 


4 



greisen 



RnSIlO 1514 20 

RnSIlO(dup) 1456 10 



Quaternary alluvium 
|RnSI29 



Eastern slate belt rocks 








RnSIl 


1180 


19 




RnSI2 


1483 


11 




RnSI7 


1318 


19 




RnSI9 


1067 


6 




RnSI20 


1810 


11 




RnSI30 


738 


14 




RnSI31 


920 


11 




RnSI32 


1019 


11 




average 


1192 






std. dev. 


340 





Atlantic Coastal plain rocks 

Bailey Springs Heavy Mineral Deposit 



2701 



1131 



1485 



1363 14 



RnSI16 


614 


6 


RnSI21 


1175 


12 


RnSI36 


530 


9 


RnSI37 


696 


7 


RnSI38 


797 


9 


RnSI38(dup) 


733 


7 


RnBSl 


1178 


8 


RnBS2 


1052 


7 


RnBS3 


606 


4 


RnBS4 


300 


8 


RnBS5 


361 


8 


RnBS6 


215 


10 


RnBS6(dup) 


160 


5 


RnBS7 


708 


9 


RnBS8 


1048 


8 


RnBS9 


599 


7 


RnBSlO 


229 


8 


RnBSl 1 


223 


3 


RnBS12 


386 


9 


RnBS13 


632 


6 


RnBS14 


408 


8 


RnBS15 


306 


4 


RnBS16 


105 


1 



765 



188 



RnBS16(dup) 


111 


4 


RnBS17 


522 


7 


RnBS18 


57 


2 


RnBS19 


120 


5 


RnBS20 


469 


6 


RnBS21 


136 


1 


RnBS22 


158 


2 


RnBS23 


203 


2 


RnBS24 


187 


1 


RnBS25 


210 


4 


RnBS26 


424 


5 


RnBS27 


317 


4 


RnBS27(dup) 


330 


6 


RnBS28 


535 


4 


RnBS29 


341 


4 


RnBS30 


1391 


10 


RnBS31 


321 


4 


RnBS32 


322 


4 


RnBS33 


656 


8 


RnBS34 


1482 


8 


RnBS35 


1091 


11 


RnBS36 


61 


2 


RnBS37 


239 


2 


RnBS37(dup) 


256 


5 


RnBS38 


250 


6 


RnBS39 


667 


8 


RnBS40 


2 


2 


RnBS41 


30 


2 


RnBS42 


232 


4 


RnBS43 


452 


11 


RnBS44 


163 


3 


RnBS45 


936 


5 


RnBS46 


230 


5 


RnBS47 


238 


4 


RnBS47(dup) 


110 


1 


RnBS48 


243 


7 


median 


323 




average 


455 





108 



324 



248 



174 



54 



Table 16. Groundwater Radon Concentrations, Sims pluton area, Nash and Wilson Counties, North Carolina 











well 


radon 


std. 


duplicate 




well 


radon 


std. duplicate 


Location 


depth 


(pC/1) 


dev. 


average 


Location 


depth (pC/1) 


dev. average 




(feet) 










(feet) 






Conner 


granitoid 










greisen 










RnwSI02 


145 


29463 


39 






RnwSI07 


130 


25652 


71 




RnwSI02(dup) 


145 


27161 


36 


28312 




RnwSIlO 


120 


2970 


12 




RnwSI03 


170 


10006 


20 














RnwSI04 


250 


4897 


17 




Carolina slate belt wall rocks 








RnwSI05 


140 


12669 


27 






RnwSIOl 


85 


2425 


13 




RnwSI06 


270 


8238 


14 






RnwSI08 


170 


941 


5 




RnwSI09 


190 


23998 


49 






RnwSI12 


192 


3545 


16 




RnwSIll 


? 


30646 


73 






RnwSI12(dup) 


192 


3929 


17 




RnwSI13 


424 


28864 


46 






RnwSI23 


166 


4140 


18 




RnwSI16 


75-100 


20682 


12 






RnwSI26 


230 


-316 


9 




RnwSI17 


>100 


21279 


39 






RnwSI27 


220 


1840 


15 




RnwSI18 


435 


15568 


44 






RnwSI28 


112 


2506 


17 




RnwSI44 


355 


15518 


31 






RnwSI29 


200 


1155 


4 




RnwSI45 


105 


26701 


53 






RnwSDO 


117 


2137 


10 




RnwSI46 


267 


28774 


63 






RnwSI31 


112 


2353 


11 




RnwSI14 


290 


60402 


115 






RnwSI32 


120 


2487 


9 




RnwSI15 


178 


24601 


63 






RnwSI32(dup) 


120 


2366 


14 


Sims granitoid 












RnwSI33 


130 


2041 


8 




RnwSI19 


>100 


19503 


31 






RnwSI34 


270 


1402 


7 




RnwSI20 


>100 


6903 


14 






RnwSI35 


>200 


1320 


4 




RnwSI21 


330 


42270 


94 






RnwSI36 


126 


1959 


14 




RnwSI22 


106 


17009 


44 






RnwSI37 


160 


1161 


3 




RnwSI22(dup) 


106 


16590 


31 


16800 






median 


2041 






RnwSI24 


231 


65895 


125 








average 


2103 






RnwSI25 


314 


37573 


48 














RnwSI38 


312 


33154 


52 




Atlantic coastal plain rocks 








RnwSI39 


234 


19820 


63 














RnwSI40 


84 


18368 


53 






RnwBS-01 


35 


632 


9 




RnwSI41 


87 


17640 


72 






RnwBS-02 


40 


1371 


11 




RnwSI42 


240 


14385 


30 






RnwBS-03 


20 


6780 


10 




RnwSI42(dup) 


240 


13113 


13 


13749 




RnwBS-04 


32 


954 


11 




RnwSI43 


187 


31871 


74 








median 


1163 






median 


20251 










average 


2434 






average 


24175 















55 



STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA 




3 3091 00595 8418 



Table 17. Aggregate Tests, Sims granite, Neverson Quarry- 
Wilson County, North Carolina (N. C. Dept. of Transportation) 





L 


. A. Wear (% Loss) 


Specific Gravity 


Sodium Sulphate Soundness 


Sample 






Grades 






Grades 




% loss at 5 cycles 




Date 


A 


B 


C 


Del.Sub. 


A 


B 


C 


1.5-0.75 


0.75-0.3/8 


3/8-#4 


12/13/82 


33 


32 


31 




2.63 


2.63 


2.63 


0.5 


0.5 


1.3 


12/22/83 


31 


30 


28 


0.0 


2.62 


2.64 


2.61 








12/14/84 


31 


31 


29 


0.0 


2.65 


2.65 


2.63 








11/20/85 


29 


29 


28 


0.0 


2.64 


2.65 


2.60 


0.0 


0.2 


1.0 


12/11/86 


33 


32 


30 


0.0 


2.63 


2.63 


2.63 








12/8/87 


30 


31 


33 


0.0 


2.63 


2.63 


2.62 








12/6/88 


32 


30 


30 


0.0 


2.64 


2.64 


2.62 


0.3 


0.3 


0.7 


12/15/89 


31 


30 


31 


0.0 


2.65 


2.66 


2.64 








11/29/90 


33 


33 


35 


0.0 


2.64 


2.63 


2.63 








11/18/91 


30 


30 


29 


0.0 


2.63 


2.63 


2.61 


0.0 


0.3 


0.7 


12/16/92 


29 


30 


34 


0.0 


2.63 


2.63 


2.61 








12/10/93 


32 


32 


37 




2.61 


2.63 


2.62 












56 



Date Due 


flCXJ-fc* 


■i 


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